New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

ARTÍCULO

New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

R. OTTO1 & F. VERLOOVE2

1 Lindenstraße, 2, D-96163 Gundelsheim, Germany

2 Botanic Garden of Meise, Nieuwelaan 38, B-1860 Meise, Belgium

Author for correspondence: R. Otto (rottoflora@t-online.de)

Editor: N. Ibáñez

ABSTRACT
New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species.— Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands) yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora in Macaronesia), Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. ×houghtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. ×pratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially) invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma.
KEYWORDS: Canary Islands; chorology; La Palma; new records; vascular plants; xenophytes.

Nuevos xenófitos de La Palma (Islas Canarias, España), con énfasis en las especies naturalizadas y (potencialmente) invasoras

RESUMEN
Nuevos xenófitos de La Palma (Islas Canarias, España), con énfasis en las especies naturalizadas y (potencialmente) invasoras.— Varios años de trabajos de campo en La Palma (Islas Canarias occidentales) han posibilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas plantas vasculares no nativas. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (ampliamente confundida con C. aethiopica y Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora en Macaronesia), Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. ×houghtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. ×pratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris y Trifolium repens subsp. repens son xenófitos naturalizados o (potencialmente) invasores, que se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias o para la isla de La Palma. 37 táxones adicionales, probablemente casuales, se dan a conocer por primera vez de las Islas Canarias, y 56 táxones de la isla de La Palma.
PALABRAS CLAVE: corología; islas Canarias; La Palma; nuevas citas; plantas vasculares; xenófitos.

Recibido: 09/05/2014 / Aceptado: 03/07/2014 / Publicado on line: 05/07/2016

Cómo citar este artículo / Citation: Otto, R. & Verloove, F. 2016. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 35: e001. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2016.v35.001

Copyright: © 2016 Institut Botànic de Barcelona (CSIC). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) Spain 3.0.

CONTENIDOS

ABSTRACT
RESUMEN
INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTIONTop

The vascular flora of the island of La Palma (Spain, Canary Islands) was thoroughly described by Santos-Guerra (1983Santos-Guerra, A. 1983. Vegetación y flora de La Palma. Ed. Interinsular Canaria, Sta. Cruz de Tenerife.) in his monumental work Vegetación y flora de La Palma. Since then relatively few new data has been published. Brandes (2005Brandes, D. 2005. Some contributions to the spontaneous flora of roadsides on La Palma, Canary Islands. Retrieved January, 2014, from http://www.ruderalvegetation.de/epub/la_palma.pdf) reported about roadside vegetation on the island and Acebes Ginovés et al. (2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.) provided an up-to-date checklist for the entire archipelago. New records of Poaceae were presented by Otto & Scholz (2012Otto, R. & Scholz, H. 2012. Chloris pycnothrix / Eleusine indica subsp. africana / Nassella neesiana / Sporobolus africanus. In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube E. von (Eds.), Euro+Med notulae, 6. Willdenowia 42: 283–285.) and three recent papers dealt with acquisitions to the flora of La Palma, both of native and non-native species (Santos-Guerra et al., 2013aSantos-Guerra, A., Padrón Mederos, M. A., Mesa Coello, R., Ojeda Land, E. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2013a. 244. Establecimiento de plantas introducidas en la flora vascular silvestre canaria I (Helechos, Gimnospermas y Monocotiledóneas). Acta Botanica Malacitana 38: 176–182., bSantos-Guerra, A., Reyes-Betancort, J. A., Padrón Mederos, M. A. & Mesa Coello, R. 2013b. Plantas poco o nada conocidas de la flora vascular silvestre de las Islas Canarias. Botanica Complutensis 37: 99–108., 2014Santos-Guerra, A., Padrón Mederos, M. A., Mesa Coello, R., Ojeda Land, E. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2014. Establecimiento de plantas intoducidas en la flora vascular silvestre canaria II (Dicotiledóneas). Acta Botanica Malacitana 39: 227–237.).

Despite the long tradition of studies on the flora of the Canary Islands, new data still come to light. Particularly the non-native flora obviously is still imperfectly known and the number of new introductions (deliberate as well as accidental) still seems on the increase (see for instance Verloove & Reyes-Betancort, 2011Verloove, F. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2011. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2011.v30.007; Verloove, 2013Verloove, F. 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2013.v32.006). In this paper new records are presented for species that are either new to the Canary Islands (and even Macaronesia as a whole) or new to the island of La Palma. Records are also provided for several species for which the genuine presence in La Palma required confirmation. Finally, new localities are given for species that were only recently reported for the first time from La Palma.

In this paper the emphasis is on species that are either naturalized, (potentially) invasive or that are otherwise of interest. Records of (mostly) occasional garden escapes or (presumably) ephemeral introductions (“casual alien plants” sensu Richardson et al., 2000Richardson, D. M., Pyšek, P., Rejmánek, M., Barbour, M. G., Panetta, F. D. & West, C. J. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6: 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-4642.2000.00083.x) are only briefly commented.

MATERIALS AND METHODSTop

Records here presented are the result of many years of field work in La Palma conducted by the first author, mainly between 1998 and 2014. Voucher specimens of most taxa are preserved in the private herbarium of the first author (hereafter as “pers. herb. RO”). Duplicates were often deposited in the herbarium of the Botanic Garden of Meise, Belgium (BR), some also in the herbaria of the Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum of Berlin-Dahlem (B) and the Botanische Staatssammlung München (M), both in Germany (acronyms according to Thiers, 2014Thiers, B. 2014. Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden, New York. Retrieved 2014, from http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/.).

The actual presence or absence on the island of La Palma of the non-native taxa here presented was each time compared with data provided by Hohenester & Welss (1993Hohenester, A. & Welss, W. 1993. Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.), Acebes Ginovés et al. (2004Acebes Ginovés, J. R., Arco Aguilar, M. del, García Gallo, A. et al. 2004. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Izquierdo, I., Martín, J. L., Zurita, N. & Arechavaleta, M. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 96–143. , 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.) and the Banco de Datos de Biodiversidad de Canarias (http://www.biodiversidadcanarias.es). For some recently introduced species several additional papers were checked as well.

The paper is divided in three parts. The first and major part deals with (probably) naturalized or (potentially) invasive species. Each entry includes the scientific name of the taxon (if useful accompanied by one or more synonyms), the family to which the taxon belongs (see below), kind of chorological novelty, enumeration of selected herbarium collections and/or personal observations (often also with exact locality indication, using Google Maps coordinates), origin (primary as well as secondary distribution range), known distribution in the Canary Islands (abbreviated as follows: H = El Hierro, P = La Palma, G = La Gomera, T = Tenerife, C = Gran Canaria, F = Fuerteventura, L = Lanzarote) and its estimated degree of naturalization in La Palma (sensu Richardson et al., 2000Richardson, D. M., Pyšek, P., Rejmánek, M., Barbour, M. G., Panetta, F. D. & West, C. J. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6: 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-4642.2000.00083.x). If relevant, some additional information is also provided (nomenclatural or taxonomic comments, identification keys, etc.). In the second part records of (presumably) ephemeral aliens are presented. These may be either new to the Canary Islands or new to the island of La Palma. For these records only herbarium data are referred to. For convenience, within each of these parts, all taxa are presented in alphabetical order.

Familial and generic classifications are in accordance with APGIII (2009APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x). For the taxa treated herein this means, for instance, that Agavaceae are included in Asparagaceae, Caesalpinioideae in Fabaceae, Chenopodiaceae in Amaranthaceae, Lemnaceae in Araceae, and Turneraceae in Passifloraceae.

Assessing exact residence status in the Canary Islands in general, or the island of La Palma in particular for each individual species, is not straightforward. All taxa except those that are quoted as surely native (nativa seguro) by Acebes Ginovés et al. (2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.) were considered non-native in this paper.

RESULTSTop

Naturalized and/or potentially invasive taxa

Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 12: 273 (1877) (Amaranthaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, Llano Negro, Calle el Rito, roadside, numerous, 903 m, 15.08.2002, R. Otto 7728 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Pedro, edge of parking below Plaza Bujaz, some individuals, 28.662408º N, 17.787544º W, 342 m, 28.08.2008, R. Otto 14323 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Tijarafe, LP-1, parking and storage area before SAT Bodegas Noroeste de La Palma, numerous, 28.737936º N, 17.966208º W, 853 m, 09.05.2012, R. Otto 19173 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta near San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, roadside and wasteland on Camino la Muralla, numerous, 28.653029º N, 17.794998º W, 408 m, 23.09.2013, R. Otto 20656 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: North America. Introduced and often completely naturalized in South America, Eurasia and other regions.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.), C (Verloove, 2013Verloove, F. 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2013.v32.006).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized (locally).

Amaranthus deflexus L., Mant. Pl. 2: 295 (1771) (Amaranthaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, El Porvenir, cobbles, 26.08.1999, R. Otto 4729 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., San Pedro, roadside, numerous, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6726 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, cemetery, cobbles, 19.08.2005, R. Otto 11157 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., roadside LP-206, 18.08.2008, R. Otto 14268 (pers. herb. RO). Also seen on several occasions in other parts of the island, e.g. Sta. Cruz de La Palma, San Andrés y Sauces, Los Llanos de Aridane, Puerto de Tazacorte and Fuencaliente; 03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: South America. Introduced or naturalized in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Aptenia cordifolia (L. f.) Schwantes in Gartenflora 77: 69 (1928) (Aizoaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, wasteland near the sea, numerous, former throw-out or relic of cultivation (30 years ago), 21.05.2013, R. Otto 20153 (pers. herb. RO); surroundings of Tijarafe and Garafía, often planted on embankments of vineyards, etc., to prevent erosion and sometimes spreading from there in the vicinity, 21.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, roadside LP-5, below crash barrier, 26.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Carretera Timibúcar (LP-202), rock facing roadside, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: South Africa. Naturalized in parts of America, Europe and Australia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized (locally).

Aptenia cordifolia is considered an invasive species in many warm-temperate regions of the world (e.g. Cela & Munné-Bosch, 2012Cela, J. & Munné-Bosch, S. 2012. Acclimation to high salinity in the invasive CAM plant Aptenia cordifolia. Plant Ecology & Diversity 5: 403–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2012.712552).

Argemone ochroleuca Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 3: pl. 242 (1828) (Papaveraceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Lodero, weed in border of ornamentals near airport, 25 m, 03.09.2007, R. Otto 13190 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves parallel Avenida las Nieves, dry gravelly exposed riverbed, in open ruderal vegetation, abundant with A. mexicana L., 30 m, 28.04.2012, R. Otto 19117 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, wasteland, with A. mexicana, 29.02.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Mexico. Commonly introduced and naturalized in tropical and temperate regions of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized in disturbed habitats of the lowest and warmest zone.

Argemone ochroleuca (like A. mexicana L.) competes with, and possibly displaces indigenous pioneer species, threatening biodiversity of riparian zones in particular (e.g. Van der Westhuizen & Mpedi, 2011Van der Westhuizen, L. & Mpedi, P. 2011. The initiation of a biological control programme against Argemone mexicana L. and Argemone ochroleuca Sweet subsp. ochroleuca (Papaveraceae) in South Africa. African Entomology 19: 223–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.019.0226).

Begonia schmidtiana Regel in Gartenflora 28: 321, pl. 990 (1879) (Fig. 1) (Begoniaceae).

Figure 1. Begonia schmidtiana and Persicaria capitata

Imagen

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Calle Abajo, numerous individuals in the gravelly riverbed and on wet or moist rock faces of the Barranco del Agua ca. 100 m before mouth of barranco, 18.08.2010, R. Otto 17195 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Barlovento, near T-junction LP-109 and Calle Lomo Machín Alto, heap of excavation material, 690 m, 29.09.2012, R. Otto 19801 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); San Andrés y Sauces, Barranco del Agua near El Mulato, roadside LP-105, several, 24.05.2013, R. Otto 20227 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves parallel Calle Belmaco, moist rock face 05.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Brazil. Widely cultivated as ornamental and increasingly naturalizing in temperate and tropical regions of the world.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

This perennial garden ornamental is frequently cultivated in La Palma and readily escapes where-ever planted. Especially in the northern and northeastern part of the island (e.g. surroundings of San Andrés y Sauces) numerous self-sustaining populations have been observed. The species preferably grows in every kind of damp habitats: shady rocks and walls, ditches, irrigation canals, etc. It often grows along with, among others, Adiantum raddianum C. Presl, A. capillus-veneris L., Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R. M. King & H. Rob., A. riparia (Regel) R. M. King & H. Rob., Cyperus eragrostis Lam., Commelina diffusa Burm. f., Erigeron karvinskianus DC., Impatiens walleriana Hook. f., Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross, Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. or Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. However, Begonia schmidtiana has also been recorded in drier habitats such as on top of walls, in roadsides, and even epiphytic on Phoenix dactylifera L.

As a result of artificial crossings the taxonomy of Begonia has become very complex and garden plants are hardly identifiable with traditional floras. The plants here referred to are characterized by their cordate leaf bases and red-hairy stems. They most closely resemble B. schmidtiana but doubtlessly represent hybrids and/or cultivars of this species, some with pink petals.

Capsella rubella Reut. in Compt. Rend. Trav. Soc. Helv. Sci. Nat. 2: 18 (1853) (Brassicaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, garden, weed in lawn, 21.08.2007, R. Otto 13314 (pers. herb. RO); Garafía, Roque Faro, wayside, 1030 m, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19112 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: southern Europe, western Asia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T?, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized, but perhaps rarer than Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Cardamine hamiltonii G. Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 167 (1831) (Brassicaceae).

= C. flexuosa With. subsp. debilis O. E. Schulz

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, house garden, 18.08.1999, R. Otto 4757 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, San Pedro, public green, flower bed, 22.08.2009, R. Otto 15454 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, hotel garden, disc of Ficus trunk, 01.09.2010, R. Otto 17321 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, San Pedro, weed in market garden, 23.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Asia. A common but widely overlooked weed in many parts of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T (Verloove & Reyes-Betancort, 2011Verloove, F. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2011. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2011.v30.007), C (Verloove, 2013Verloove, F. 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2013.v32.006).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Cardamine hamiltonii seems to be, to our current knowledge, the correct name to apply at the species level for the weed often referred to as “Asian” C. flexuosa (Schulz, 1903Schulz, O. E. 1903. Monographie der gattung Cardamine. W. Engelmann, Leipzig. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15567 ).

Centratherum punctatum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. (ed. 2) 7: 384 (1817) (Asteraceae).

= C. intermedium (Link) Less., Ampherephis mutica Kunth

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Urbanización Las Salinas 1, ruderal Stenotaphrum lawn, probably escaped from cultivation, about 10 individuals, 25.04.2012, R. Otto 18960 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Brazil. Introduced and naturalized for instance in Florida, Central America, West Indies, Hawai, South Africa and Australia.

Degree of naturalization: probably ephemeral but potentially invasive.

This species is very rarely cultivated as an ornamental but easily seems to escape. In favourable climatic circumstances it readily behaves like an aggressive environmental weed, for instance in the Galápagos Islands and the Hawaiian Islands (US Forest Service, 2012US Forest Service 2012. Centratherum punctatum – Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Retrieved February, 2014, from http://www.hear.org/pier/species/centratherum_punctatum.htm ).

Cerastium fontanum Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 1: 425 (1816) subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12(1): 37 (1982) (Caryophyllaceae).

= Cerastium holosteoides Fr.

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, public green, weed in irrigated lawn, abundant, 22.08.2009, R. Otto 15453 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., 02.09.2010, R. Otto 17315 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., 05.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, irrigated border near beach, lawn weed, 07.05.2012, R. Otto 19128 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Europe.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized (?).

Chasmanthe floribunda (Salisb.) N. E. Br. in Trans. Roy. Soc. South Africa 20(3): 274 (1932) (Fig. 2) (Iridaceae).

Figure 2. Chasmanthe floribunda, San Isidro (left, right); Tigalate (middle), March 2014 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Tigalate, roadside LP-2 near T-junction LP-206, 28.547137º N, 17.808956º W, 656 m, 04.03.2014, R. Otto 20877 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, south of La Sabina, roadside LP-206, slope, several clusters, 28.580889º N, 17.784872º W, 596 m, 04.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Villa de Mazo, roadside LP-206 near km 16.5, 12.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Alta, above San Isidro, near crossing LP-301 and Canal de Fuencaliente, 28.628773º N, 17.802299º W, 697 m, 10.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized, potentially invasive.

Chasmanthe floribunda is very similar to C. aethiopica (L.) N. E. Br. and both apparently have frequently been confused (see also Goldblatt et al., 2004Goldblatt, P., Manning, J. & Dunlop, G. 2004. Crocosmia and Chasmanthe. Royal Horticultural Society plant collector guide. Timber Press, Cambridge.). So far, all specimens of Chasmanthe seen on La Palma (also in gardens) belong to C. floribunda, C. aethiopica being rare (or even absent?) in cultivation. This is not surprising, since the latter is much less attractive. This seems to hold true elsewhere in the Canary Islands (and probably in Macaronesia as a whole) as well. Photos displayed as “C. aethiopica” are in fact referable to C. floribunda (e.g. Flora de Canarias, 2014Flora de Canarias 2014. Retrieved April, 2014, from http://www.floradecanarias.com/chasmanthe_aethiopica.html, or Interreg Bionatura, 2014Interreg Bionatura 2014. Retrieved April, 2014, from http://www.interreg-bionatura.com/especies/pdf/Chasmanthe%20aethiopica.pdf), or even belong to Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora (Lemoine) N. E. Br. (e.g. Silva et al., 2008Silva, L., Ojeda Land, E. & Rodriguez Luengo, J. L. (Eds.) 2008. Flora y fauna terrestre invasora en la Macaronesia. TOP 100 en Azores, Madeira y Canarias, ARENA, Ponta Delgada.).

It may be useful to present a key for the identification of the two Chasmanthe species and the closely related Crocosmia ×crocosmiflora (modified from Cullen, 2011aCullen, J. 2011a. Chasmanthe. In: Cullen, J., Knees, S. G. & Cubey, H. S. (Eds.), The European garden flora 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 301–302., bCullen, J. 2011b. Crocosmia. In: Cullen, J., Knees, S. G. & Cubey, H. S. (Eds.), The European garden flora 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 295–296. and Goldblatt et al., 2004Goldblatt, P., Manning, J. & Dunlop, G. 2004. Crocosmia and Chasmanthe. Royal Horticultural Society plant collector guide. Timber Press, Cambridge.):

1. Curved perianth tube bilateral symmetric, perianth lobes more or less radially symmetric
........................................................................................................ Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora

-. Curved perianth tube and also the perianth lobes bilaterally symmetric
........................................................................................................ 2

2. Plant of comparatively short size, up to 60 cm tall (seldom more), stem unbranched. Spike simple (or occasionally with 1 branch) arching outward to almost horizontal with 1016 flowers borne in a single congested row on the upper side of the spike axis. Perianth tube ca. 2.8 cm, trumpet-shaped. The lower part (5)710(15) mm, slender and conspicuously spirally twisted through 360°, abruptly expanded into a wide cylindric upper part 1625 mm long, whose base is formed by 3 obvious pouches. Dorsal tepal ca. 2.5 cm long. Seeds with a fleshy seed coat after the capsule walls split, the seed coat later becomes dry and wrinkled. Capsules often flushed reddish to purple inside
........................................................................................................ Chasmanthe aethiopica

-. Plant robust, up to 120 cm, stem usually branched, the branches ascending. Spike erect, mostly with 3040 flowers borne in two opposed rows. Perianth-tube 3.84 cm, trumpet-shaped, its basal part 78 mm, slender and twisted, broadening gradually into the upper part, slightly pouched at base. Dorsal tepal to 3.3 cm long. Seed coat hard and shiny, never fleshy. Capsule straw-colored inside
........................................................................................................ Ch. floribunda

Chenopodium probstii Aellen in Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Solothurn 20(8): 56 (1928) (Fig. 3) (Amaranthaceae).

Figure 3. Chenopodium probstii, San Pedro, roadside (left); Puntallana, Calle Lomo Estrello, roadside (right), September 2013 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, St. Pedro, Calle La Habana, wasteland with scattered ruderal vegetation, 25.08.2007, R. Otto 13183 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Barranco de la Zarcita, Camino la Muralla, riverbed, 03.06.2013, R. Otto 20370 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Las Ledas, roadside LP-206, 10.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Puntallana, La Galga, Calle Lomo Estrello near LP-1, wayside and storage area, abundant individuals, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20699 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, San Isidro, crossing LP-301 and Camino 1a, roadside, 10.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Villa de Mazo, San Simón, roadside LP-2, several individuals, 12.03.2014, R. Otto 21008 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Camino la Laja del Barranco, wayside, 150 m, 13.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: uncertain, probably North America.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized and in significant expansion since some years.

Chenopodium probstii is very similar to C. album L. s. str. Typical individuals are distinguished by their leaves that are large and leathery and that have a distinct purple pigmentation.

Commelina latifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 340 (1850) var. latifolia (Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7) (Commelinaceae).

Figure 4. Commelina latifolia, habit, Los Sauces, roadside, September 2013 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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Figure 5. Commelina latifolia, leaves and sheaths, San Andrés, September 2013 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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Figure 6. Commelina latifolia, seeds, San Andrés, September 2013 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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Figure 7. Commelina diffusa (left) and C. latifolia (right), comparison of flowers: s = sepals, lp = lower petal (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, Camino Puerto Espíndola ca. 250 m before Puerto Espíndola, roadside ditch and water channel below wall of rocks, numerous large plants, creeping up to 2 m height, 28.809215º N, 17.763857º W, 32 m, 30.08.2008, R. Otto 14390 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., 24.05.2013, R. Otto 20209 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); San Andrés, Calle Abajo, on the edge of the gravelly moist riverbed and on moist wall bases of the Barranco del Agua ca. 150 m before mouth of barranco, with Momordica charantia L., 28.800965º N, 17.760081º W, 10 m, 03.10.2011, R. Otto 18731 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., numerous seedlings, 26.05.2013, R. Otto 20260 (pers. herb. RO), 20602 (pers. herb. RO); Los Sauces, water channel alongside LP-1 (General Bajamar), 260 m, 07.10.2011, R. Otto 18783 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés, wayside Camino Cruz Grande, concrete ditch at base of wall of banana plantation, with Cyperus esculentus L., 08.05.2012, R. Otto 19941 (pers. herb. RO); between San Andrés and Llano del Pino, LP-104 ca. 600 m before San Andrés, base of wall of banana plantation, numerous, 28.793662º N, 17.763031º W, 116 m, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20693 (pers. herb. RO); between San Andrés and Los Sauces, on many places alongside the entire northern part of LP-104, particularly in roadside ditches, sometimes creeping on road surface, 25.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: northeastern Africa and Yemen, reaching northern Tanzania to the south and Rwanda and Burundi to the west. Outside of its native distribution range only known from South Africa (R. Faden, pers. comm., 2013).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized, potentially invasive?

This species was first discovered in 2006 and was subsequently seen on several occasions, always in the surroundings of Los Sauces where it is firmly established nowadays. All known localities are close to banana plantations. The species is probably dispersed by hydrochory (irrigation canals and roadside ditches). In such habitats it locally forms dense, monospecific stands.

Its vector of introduction in La Palma remains uncertain. To our knowledge this species is not cultivated as an ornamental. In East Africa it is grown as a minor crop or pot herb (e.g. Kunkel, 1984Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption – An annotated checklist of the edible phanerogams and ferns. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.; Van der Burg, 2004Van der Burg, W. J. 2004. Commelina benghalensis L. In: Grubben, G. J. H. & Denton, O. A. (Eds.), Plant resources of tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden & CTA, Wageningen: 212–214.) and this may explain its occurrence in La Palma. In Barranco del Agua it grows in close proximity to Momordica charantia L. and Cyperus esculentus L., two species that are also grown as edible or curative plants in La Palma.

Like other species of Commelina, it may also be an impurity in commercial birdseed mixtures.

Commelina latifolia often grows along with C. diffusa Burm. f. and Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. In the absence of flowers these species can easily be intermixed. The three species of Commelina known to occur in the Canary Islands, as well as the widespread weed (and possibly overlooked) C. communis L., are distinguished as follows (modified from Faden, 1982Faden, R. 1982. Commelinaceae. In: Häfliger, B. E. (Ed.), Monocot weeds 3. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY, Basel: 100–111.; R. Faden, pers. comm., 2013):

1. Spathe margins fused at least near the base
........................................................................................................ 2

-. Spathe margins free to base
........................................................................................................ 3

2. Leaves sessile, clasping the stem at base, nearly glabrous above and with acicular hairs on the midrib beneath. Flowers with reduced whitish lower (middle) petal and two well developed blue upper petals. Capsule ± square, usually 4-seeded, seeds spherical, markedly textured with many wart-like bumps
........................................................................................................ Commelina latifolia var. latifolia

-. Leaves mostly petiolate, ovate to ovate-elliptic, base cuneate, both surfaces usually puberulous. Flowers with all petals blue. Capsule oblong-ellipsoid to subquadrate, 5-seeded, seeds shallowly reticulate
........................................................................................................ C. benghalensis

3. Seeds (2)2.53.5 mm long, pitted and often rugose. Lower petal white
........................................................................................................ C. communis

-. Seeds 22.5(3 mm) long, with a raised reticulum. Lower petal blue
........................................................................................................ C. diffusa var. diffusa

Dichondra micrantha Urban in Symb. Antill. 9(2): 243 (1924) (Convolvulaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Buenavista de Abajo, garden, between cobbles, 06.08.2006, R. Otto 14376 (pers. herb. RO); Fuencaliente, below Las Indias, hotel garden, weed (?) in lawn and wayside, abundant, 18.09.2008, R. Otto 11136 (pers. herb. RO); Garafía, St. Domingo, flower border and wayside, numerous, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19119 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, hotel garden, weed in lawn, 04.06.2013, R. Otto 20377 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: probably America. Widely introduced and naturalized in the warm-temperate and tropical regions of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C, F (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Dichondra micrantha is frequently planted as a grass-substitute for lawns in La Palma and easily escapes subsequently. Large-flowered plants have been recorded (e.g. RO 20377). These are somehow reminiscent of D. recurvata Tharp & M. C. Johnst. (Tharp & Johnston, 1961Tharp, B. C. & Johnston, M. C. 1961. Recharacterization of Dichondra (Convolvulaceae) and a revision of the North American species. Brittonia 13: 346–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2805413) but probably merely represent cultivars of D. micrantha.

Dysphania anthelmintica (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants in Ukrajins’k. Bot. Žurn. 59(4): 382 (2002) (Amaranthaceae).

Chenopodium anthelminticum L.

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Barranco de de las Nieves parallel Avenida las Nieves, exposed dry gravelly riverbed, ruderal site, numerous, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20236 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Isidro, Barranco de Aduares, wayside, open ruderal vegetation, 27.09.2013, R. Otto 20713 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: North and Central America. Elsewhere cultivated and increasingly naturalizing.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: C (Verloove, 2013Verloove, F. 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2013.v32.006).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Frequently seen in barrancos, roadsides, waste places, etc., especially in the lower zones. Often quite abundant and much more frequent than the similar Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants.

For differentiation between these species see Verloove (2013Verloove, F. 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2013.v32.006).

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. s. l., Med. Repos., ser. 2, 5: 361 (1808) (Onagraceae).

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, ornamental plant nursery and market garden, numerous as a weed in and between various pots and containers, 01.09.2010, R. Otto 17323 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: North America. Widely naturalized as a weed worldwide.

Degree of naturalization: ephemeral? Potentially invasive.

Epilobium ciliatum is here accepted in a broad sense as to include E. adenocaulon Hausskn. and E. glandulosum Lehm. The collection cited above appears to belong to E. ciliatum s. str. but most collections from La Palma are ± intermediate between the latter (with whitish or pale pinkish petals, stems branched from near base) and E. adenocaulon (pedicel in fruit less than 10 mm long, leaves sessile). This holds true for the following collections:

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Calle Caridad Salazar, near church, numerous in damp places beside a water channel, 13.08.2010, R. Otto 17166 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, Calle la Constitución, moist place nearby public green, about two hundred individuals closely next to each other, 23.09.2013, R. Otto 20650 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Erigeron sumatrensis Retz. in Observ. Bot. 5: 28 (1788) (Asteraceae).

Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, harbour, roadside, several, 22.08.1999, R. Otto 4442 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, LP-5 near airport, dry roadside, abundant, 60 m, 19.08.2006, R. Otto 12014 (pers. herb. RO); Barlovento, Calle Lomo Machín Alto, dry roadside, abundant, 720 m, 19.08.2008, R. Otto 14275 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, La Montaña, Calle La Montaña, dense ruderal vegetation, 560 m, abundant, 22.08.2008, R. Otto 14290 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., cemetery, ruderal vegetation near parking, numerous, 22.08.2008, R. Otto 14299 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, El Socorro, roundabout, abundant in plantation of ornamentals, 70 m, 22.08.2008, R. Otto 14305 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, roadside LP-206, abundant, 22.08.2008, R. Otto 14291 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Puntallana, Cubo de la Galga, wayside path, laurisilva, 23.08.2008 R. Otto 14310 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Isidro, roadside, numerous, 614 m, 30.08.2008, R. Otto 14372 (pers. herb. RO); Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, abundant as weed in vineyard and roadside, ca. 1000 m, 23.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: South America. Introduced and naturalized in Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Africa.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: C, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: invasive.

Erigeron sumatrensis is a very typical plant in disturbed places of the lower and middle altitudes, on roadsides, wasteland, etc. It also occurs as weed in gardens and agricultural areas and is invading the natural vegetation as well. In La Palma this species is more common than the similar E. floribundus (Kunth) Sch.-Bip.

The American annual or biennial species of Erigeron (“Conyza”) known to occur in the Canary Islands are distinguished as follows:

1. Leaves nearly glabrous above or with scattered hairs along midrib only, margins distinctly ciliate (at least in lower third, ciliae often 1 mm long). Involucral bracts nearly glabrous. Capitulae ca. 24 mm wide at anthesis
........................................................................................................ 2

-. Leaves densely shortly pubescent above, margins hardly ciliate (ciliae, if present, very short). Involucral bracts softly hairy. Capitulae ca. 410 mm wide at anthesis
........................................................................................................ 3

2. Inner (tubular) florets mostly 4-lobed, ca. 1015 per capitulum. Ligules always present, white, distinctly exceeding involucre. Inflorescence often cylindric, much longer than wide. Plant annual, usually yellowish-green, stem not hirsute
........................................................................................................ Erigeron canadensis

-. Inner (tubular) florets mostly 5-lobed, ca. 46 per capitulum. Ligules absent or rudimentary, not exceeding involucre. Inflorescence much broader, usually only slightly longer than wide. Plant annual or short-lived perennial, dull greyish-green, stem hirsute
........................................................................................................ E. floribundus

3. Leaves narrow, less than 5 mm wide, the uppermost linear. Inflorescence often with greatly enlarged side branches overtopping the main axis. Apex of involucral bracts often purplish. Capitulae ca. 610 mm at anthesis. Pappus brownish
........................................................................................................ E. bonariensis

-. Most leaves wider, 320 mm wide, never linear. Side branches of the inflorescence not overtopping the main axis. Apex of involucral bracts not purplish. Capitulae ca. 46 mm at anthesis. Pappus whitish
........................................................................................................ E. sumatrensis

Erodium neuradifolium Delile ex Godr. in Mém. Sect. Méd. Acad. Sci. Montpellier 1: 425 (1853) (Geraniaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, harbour, sandy storage area, with Erodium chium (L.) Willd., 24.08.2000, R. Otto 4745 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., Barranco de las Nieves parallel Avenida las Nieves, dry gravelly riverbed, ruderal site, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20238 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, unpaved parking site before the S exit of the new road tunnel, several individuals, 10.03.2014, R. Otto 20898 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Puerto de Tazacorte, Barranco de las Angustias parallel Avenida Taburiente, river bank, 10.03.2014, R. Otto 21016 (pers. herb. RO).

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Erodium neuradifolium is a rare element of the ruderal vegetation, perhaps only in the costal areas in the climatologically mildest parts of the island.

Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Voy. Rech. Pérouse 1: 153, pl. 13 (1799) (Myrtaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Puntallana, rocky slope on Calle Lomo Estrello, several young trees, 25.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., Barranco Hondo de Nogales, Calle el Corcho, rocky slope and escarpment, several young trees, tall old trees nearby roadside, 09.03.2014, R. Otto 20935 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Villa de Mazo, above Tigalate, roadside LP-206, in the vicinity of some old planted trees abundant seedlings and young trees up to 2 m tall after a forest fire in 08.2012, 28.563979º N, 17.796733º W, 670 m, 12.03.2014, R. Otto 21007 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Australia. Extensively planted worldwide and increasingly naturalizing.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Eucalyptus globulus is a potentially very invasive species (e.g. Calviño-Cancela & Rubido-Bará, 2013Calviño-Cancela, M. & Rubido-Bará, M. 2013. Invasive potential of Eucalyptus globulus: Seed dispersal, seedling recruitment and survival in habitats surrounding plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 305: 129–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.037).

Euphorbia hypericifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 454 (1753) (Euphorbiaceae).

Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.; incl. E. glomerifera (Millsp.) L. C. Wheeler

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, parking and storage area before the S entrance of the former road tunnel, small population ca. 10 individuals, 9 m, 24.08.2000, R. Otto 4672 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Calle Rosal, between pavement slobs, scattered individuals, 15.08.2007, 265 m, R. Otto 13336 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, up to ca. 50 m S of the exit of the new road tunnel, ca. 30 plants, R. Otto 14369 (pers. herb. RO); ibid.,15.08.2010, R. Otto 17179 (pers. herb. RO, conf. H.J. Esser 2011, dupl. M, BR); ibid., from the tunnel exit alongside the former football arena over a distance of 300 m ca. 100 plants in cracks of pavement and asphalt, etc., partially up to 80 cm tall, with Chloris pycnothrix Trin., 01.10.2013 and 10.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, port, pier of cruisers, border, 03.03.2014, R. Otto 20981 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: America. A common and increasing weed in many temperate and subtropical regions in the Old World.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, T, C, F (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.), recently also recorded in G (Santos-Guerra et al., 2013bSantos-Guerra, A., Reyes-Betancort, J. A., Padrón Mederos, M. A. & Mesa Coello, R. 2013b. Plantas poco o nada conocidas de la flora vascular silvestre de las Islas Canarias. Botanica Complutensis 37: 99–108.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Euphorbia hypericifolia was no longer seen in 2008 in the second population cited above. However, in Breña Alta (Avenida Bajamar) its persistence and increase have been noticed. The plants are woody at base, strongly rooted and therefore difficult to eradicate (they readily sprout after cutting). At present, it still is a rare element of the ruderal vegetation but a future expansion, predominantly in the coastal areas in the climatically mildest parts of the island, is very likely.

The plants here concerned are quite glabrous and belong to E. glomerifera (like all plants seen from the Canary Islands) if this species is regarded at specific status.

Euphorbia maculata L., Sp. Pl. 1: 455 (1753) (Euphorbiaceae).

Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: El Paso, Calle Sagrado Corazón, planter, 17.08.2007, R. Otto 13371 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, border near beach, abundant, 18.08.2007, R. Otto 13369 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., El Socorro, roundabout Calle Cantillo, bare ground in palm plantation, numerous individuals with E. serpens Kunth, 19.08.2008, R. Otto 14284 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, Carretera de la Cumbre (LP-3), roadside, numerous, 13.08.2008, R. Otto 14252 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, hotel garden, weed in lawn, 27.08.2009, R. Otto 14336 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, roadside, 15.08.2010, R. Otto 15422 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Villa de Mazo, Callejones, roadside LP-2 near T-junction Carretera Dr. Morera Bravo, several, 12.03.2014, R. Otto 21004 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: North America. Widely introduced as a weed in many parts of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Gamochaeta antillana (Urb.) Anderb. in Opera Bot. 104: 157 (1991) (Asteraceae).

Gnaphalium antillanum Urb.; incl. Gamochaeta subfalcata (Cabrera) Cabrera

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, San Antonio del Monte, Zona Recreativa next Ermita de San Antonio, patchy ruderal vegetation along the enclosing wall, 15.08.2006, R. Otto 11752 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Villa de Mazo, Calle Caridad Salazar, cobblestone pavement in front of church, numerous, 15.08.2009, R. Otto 15417 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Barlovento, Laguna de Barlovento, wasteland and embankment of roadside, numerous, 20.08.2011, R. Otto 17241 (pers. herb. RO); Barlovento, near T-junction LP-109 and Calle Lomo Machín Alto, heap of excavation material, 690 m, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19101 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Calle Abajo, gravelly moist riverbed of the Barranco del Agua ca. 150 m before mouth of barranco, several individuals, 08.05.2012, R. Otto 19159 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: America. Introduced and naturalized as a weed in Europe and New Zealand.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, T (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Gamochaeta antillana is much increasing in the past years and locally frequent, for instance in the area around Barlovento, Breña Alta and Mazo, where it occurs in disturbed habitats and as a weed in agricultural fields and gardens. Up to present it probably has been confused with G. pensylvanica (Willd.) Cabrera in La Palma. The latter has obovate-spathulate leaves.

Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f., Spec. Bot. Geran.: 27 (1759) (Geraniaceae).

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Fuente Boleo on LP-109, roadside and on slopes in the vicinity of the source, several individuals, with Geranium molle L., 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19108 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Eurasia and North Africa. Locally naturalized elsewhere, for instance in North America (Aedo, 2001Aedo, C. 2001. The genus Geranium L. in North America. II Perennial species. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 59: 3–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/ajbm.2001.v59.i1.74).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Hedychium coronarium J. König in Observ. Bot. 3: 73 (1783) (Fig. 8) (Zingiberaceae).

Figure 8. Hedychium coronarium, San Andrés, moist rock face, September 2013 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, near Llano del Pino, moist rockface 5 m above level of LP-104, population of some m², old escape from cultivation, 28.793232º N, 17.767403º W, 175 m, 20.09.2013, R. Otto 20629 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: India to Indonesia. Widely cultivated as an ornamental in warm-temperate and (sub-) tropical regions of the world.

Degree of naturalization: ephemeral? Potentially invasive (see Silva et al., 2008Silva, L., Ojeda Land, E. & Rodriguez Luengo, J. L. (Eds.) 2008. Flora y fauna terrestre invasora en la Macaronesia. TOP 100 en Azores, Madeira y Canarias, ARENA, Ponta Delgada.) for the Azores.

Hypochaeris radicata L., Sp. Pl. 2: 811 (1753) subsp. radicata (Asteraceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, roadside LP-1, 580 m, numerous, 20.08.2004, R. Otto 10132 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Mirca, 300 m, roadside, 20.08.2004, R. Otto 10140 (pers. herb. RO); Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, roadside and vineyard, ca. 1000 m, 17.08.2010, R. Otto 17208 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Risco de la Concepción, fallow field, 05.03.2011, R. Otto 17651 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, waste land, numerous, 13.03.2011 R. Otto 17793 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); El Paso, near roundabout on LP-3, wasteland, 09.05.2012, R. Otto 19267 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Eurasia. Introduced and naturalized in North America and Australia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T, F (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier in Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille, sér. 3, 2: 128–132 (1914) (Fig. 9) (Crassulaceae).

Figure 9. Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Sta. Cruz de la Palma, May 2013 (right); Kalanchoe ×houghtonii, Sta. Cruz de La Palma, rooftop, June 2013 (left); Kalanchoe ×houghtonii, Los Cancajos, epiphyte on Phoenix canariensis, September 2013 (middle) (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, near Puerto Espíndola, roadside, several individuals, 22.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Calle Sebastián Arozena, many individuals on rocky slope, 07.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs., photo det. D. Guillot Ortiz & J. López-Pujol 2015).

Origin: Madagascar. Widely cultivated as an ornamental and increasingly escaping in warm-temperate and subtropical regions of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Kalanchoe daigremontiana is considered an invasive species having impacts principally in dry and arid areas of the world (e.g. Herrera et al., 2011Herrera, I., Hernandez, M. J., Lampo, M. & Nassar, J. M. 2011. Plantlet recruitment is the key demographic transition in invasion by Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Population Ecology 54: 225–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10144-011-0282-5). However, compared with K. ×houghtonii D. B. Ward, this species seems to be less common in horticulture and in the wild on La Palma.

Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh., Enum. Pl. Afr. Austral. 3: 305 (1837) (Fig. 10) (Crassulaceae).

Figure 10. Kalanchoe delagoensis, San Andrés, rocky slope, September 2013 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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= Kalanchoe tubiflora (Harvey) Hamet

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, Barranco de Blas, several individuals on stone wall of barranco, 04.05.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.); San Andrés y Sauces, near Llano del Pino, rocky slope alongside LP-104, small population, 20.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, weed in planter, 21.09.2013, R. Otto 20793 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, Puerto Espíndola, parking and wayside, cultivated nearby, 25.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs., photo conf. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014); Villa de Mazo, La Salemera, wayside and rocky slope (partially dump) close to the sea, abundant individuals with Euphorbia tirucalli L. and Kalanchoe ×houghtonii, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Los Cancajos, rocky slope, 01.03.2014, R. Otto 21017 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Madagascar. Widely cultivated as an ornamental and increasingly escaping in warm-temperate and subtropical regions of the world.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

In La Palma this species is found in similar habitats as Kalanchoe ×houghtonii D. B. Ward. It is an aggressive weed with a high invasive potential, especially in pastures, grasslands, open woodlands and disturbed land in subtropical, tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world (e.g. Batianoff & Butler, 2002Batianoff, G. N. & Butler, D. W. 2002. Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly 17: 27–34.).

Kalanchoe ×houghtonii D. B. Ward in Cact. Succ. J. 78(2): 94 (2006) (Fig. 9) (Crassulaceae).

= Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier × K. delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh.

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, near Calle San Miguel, Barranco de Laja de Llanito, edge of dry gravelly riverbed, several individuals, 23.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Calle el Lomo, rooftop between tiles, 04.06.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Urbanización Las Salinas, numerous in cracks and joints of pavement and sidewalk, with Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb., 20.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., Calle Las Salinas, epiphytic on trunk of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud, 23.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., rocky slopes alongside LP-5, several colonies, 26.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Villa de Mazo, La Salemera, wayside and rocky slope (partially dump) close to the sea, abundant individuals with Euphorbia tirucalli and Kalanchoe delagoensis, 29.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid. Camino Playa el Pocito, roadside, several individuals, 02.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Tazacorte, Puerto, Barranco Tenisca, rocky slope, abundant, 06.03.2014, R. Otto 20894 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, LP-401 crossing Barranco del Carmen Dorador, abundant on a rocky slope below LP-401, 250 m, 08.03.2014, R. Otto 20925 (pers. herb. RO). Photos of all these populations det. D. Guillot Ortiz & J. López-Pujol 2015.

Origin: Artificial hybrid. Widely cultivated as an ornamental and increasingly escaping in warm-temperate and subtropical regions of the world.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

In contrast to Kalanchoe daigremontiana, one of its putative parents, this artificial hybrid seems to be not rare at all in dry disturbed habitats close to habitations, often on rocky slopes, in roadsides, by foot of walls, in cracks of pavement but also on roofs, between cobbles, as a weed in flower pots and sometimes epiphytic on palm trunks.

Kalanchoe ×houghtonii is here reported for the first time from the Canary Islands but it surely has widely been confused with K. daigremontiana. Compared with the latter, it has narrowly deltoid to broadly lanceolate leaf blades and dark red corollas ca. 2025 mm long (Ward, 2008Ward, D. B. 2008. Keys to the flora of Florida. 18, Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae). Phytologia 90: 41–46. ). In parts of Spain (incl. Balearic Islands) K. ×houghtonii is considered an invasive alien (e.g. Guillot Ortiz, 2008Guillot Ortiz, D. 2008. Un nuevo taxón invasor para la flora balear, Kalanchoe × houghtonii D. B. Ward. Acta Botanica Barcinonensia 51: 129–130. , Guillot et al., 2014Guillot, D., Laguna, E., López-Pujol, J., Sáez, Ll. & Puche, C. 2014. Kalanchoe × houghtonii ‘Garbí’. Bouteloua 19: 99–128.).

Kickxia commutata (Bernh. ex Reichenb.) Fritsch, Exkursionsfl. Österreich: 492 (1897) subsp. graeca (Bory & Chaub.) R. Fernandes in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 74 (1971) (Plantaginaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Lodero, airport, public green on parking, 24.08.1999, R. Otto 4695 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Subida al Mirador de la Concepción, public green, numerous, 21.08.2004, R. Otto 10099 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., San Pedro, Camino la Muralla, wasteland, numerous, 30.08.2008, R. Otto 14383 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, wasteland between Calle Nr. 6 and Calle Nr. 8, on bare ground, hundreds of specimens, 05.06.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Aegean region and Balkan Peninsula.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

All specimens of Kickxia commutata seen so far in La Palma belong to subsp. graeca. (Ghebrehiwet, 2000Ghebrehiwet, M. 2000. Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of Kickxia and Nanorrhinum (Scrophulariaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 20: 655–690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2000.tb00753.x). Although very disjunct, this is in accordance with other Canarian records.

Kickxia spuria (L.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 35 (1827) subsp. integrifolia (Brot.) R. Fernandes in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 74 (1971) (Plantaginaceae).

Subspecies new to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Lodero, public green at parking of the airport, 18.08.2000, R. Otto 4680 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Buenavista, Subida al Mirador de la Concepción, public green, with Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, 21.08.2004, R. Otto 10099 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Buenavista, former airport, wasteland, ground heap, 02.10.2011, R. Otto 18728 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, Los Sauces, Barranco del Agua, former cultivated land and terrace wall, abundant, 14.10.2011, R. Otto 18802 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Barlovento, near crossroad LP-109/Calle Lomo Machín Alto, ground heap, 690 m, 29.09.2012, R. Otto 19803 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: southern Europe.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

All specimens of Kickxia spuria seen so far in La Palma belong to subsp. integrifolia, while so far only subsp. spuria was known to occur in the Canary Islands (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Lactuca viminea (L.) J. Presl. & C. Presl., Fl. Čech.: 160 (1890) subsp. ramosissima (All.) Arcang., Fl. Ital.: 424 (1882) (Asteraceae).

Subspecies new to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Puntallana, roadside LP-4, ca. 1950 m, numerous, 16.08.2009, R. Otto 15406 (pers. herb. RO), 15407 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Garafía, Carretera al Roque de los Muchachos, parking before observatory headquarters, 2145 m, 16.08.2009, R. Otto 15407 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., Mirador de Los Andenes, ca. 2280 m, alongside the path to Pared de Roberto, several, 27.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Garafía, roadside LP-4, 1878 m, 27.05.2013, R. Otto 20298 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Mediterranean area.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima is characterized by its basally branched stems 15–50 cm tall, with numerous short, divaricate branches (Feráková, 1977Feráková, V. 1977. The genus Lactuca L. in Europe. Univerzita Komenského, Bratislava.). Populations from localities provided by Santos-Guerra (1983Santos-Guerra, A. 1983. Vegetación y flora de La Palma. Ed. Interinsular Canaria, Sta. Cruz de Tenerife.) from similar habitats should be checked; they may also be referable to this taxon.

Landoltia punctata (G. Mey.) Les & D. J. Crawford in Novon 9(4): 532 (1999) (Figs. 11 and 12) (Araceae).

Spirodela punctata (G. Meyer) C. H. Thompson

Figure 11. Landoltia punctata, Eichhornia crassipes, Helosciadium nodiflorum and Polypogon viridis, San Andrés, October 2013 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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Figure 12. Landoltia punctata, detail of fronds, August 2011 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Cuesta del Llano de la Cruz, water reservoir in orchard, 28.697543º N, 17.777891º W, 290 m, abundant with Azolla filiculoides Lam. and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle, 01.09.2008, R. Otto 14419 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Calle Abajo, common in puddles and small ponds of the gravelly riverbed of the Barranco del Agua near mouth of barranco, 18.08.2010, R. Otto 17192 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., between San Andrés and Charco Azul, small water reservoir, 03.10.2011, R. Otto 18734 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); San Andrés y Sauces, near Llano del Pino, LP-104, roadside ditch, 28.793232º N, 17.767403º W, 175 m, 20.09.2013, R. Otto 20636 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: possibly native to southeastern Asia and Australia. Now invading all Nearctic, Afrotropical and Neotropical regions of the world (Landolt, 2000Landolt, E. 2000. Lemnaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico 22. Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford: 143–153. ).

Degree of naturalization: invasive.

In La Palma (and probably in the other Canarian Islands as well) Landoltia punctata is an overlooked species or it may have been misidentified (as Lemna gibba L. or L. minor L.). Particularly on the northeast side of La Palma it is a relatively frequent aquatic weed in water reservoirs, roadside ditches, etc. Sometimes it even extends to riverbeds in barrancos. It is a reputed aggressive weed and the first aquatic plant species that has developed resistance to certain herbicides (Koschnick et al., 2006Koschnick, T. J., Haller, W. T. & Glasgow, L. 2006. Documentation of landoltia (Landoltia punctata) resistance to diquat. Weed Science 54: 615–619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-06-002R.1).

Recently, another non-native duckweed was recorded for the first time from the Canary Islands (Lemna minuta Kunth in Gran Canaria; see Verloove, 2013Verloove, F. 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. Collectanea Botanica 32: 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2013.v32.006). It may be useful to present a simplified identification key for the species thus far known to occur:

1. Roots absent
........................................................................................................ Wolffia arrhiza

-. Roots present
........................................................................................................ 2

2. Roots 26. Mature fronds 35(8) mm across, obovate, ca. 1.52 times longer than wide, lower surface often reddish
........................................................................................................ Landoltia punctata

-. Roots solitary
........................................................................................................ 3

3. Fronds with a single vein
........................................................................................................ L. minuta

-. Fronds with 35 veins
........................................................................................................ 4

4. Fronds gibbous (swollen)
........................................................................................................ L. gibba

-. Fronds not gibbous
........................................................................................................ L. minor

Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke in Bonplandia (Hannover) 5(18): 295, 297 (1857) subsp. capitatospicatum (Kuntze) S. R. Hill in Brittonia 32(4): 476 (1980) (Fig. 13) (Malvaceae).

Figure 13. Mature carpels of the three taxa of Malvastrum on La Palma: M. corchorifolium (a), San Andrés, August 2009, priv. herb. R. Otto 18764; M. coromandelianum subsp. coromandelianum (b), Sta. Cruz de La Palma, March 2014, priv. herb. R. Otto 20886; M. coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum (c), Puerto de Tazacorte, March 2014, priv. herb. R. Otto 20892 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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Subspecies new to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Tazacorte, weed in banana plantation, 15.08.2000, R. Otto 4749 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Puerto de Tazacorte, Barranco Tenisca, near the sewage station, dry roadside, numerous individuals, with Sida spinosa L., 28.656278º N, 17.940412º W, 16.08.2006, R. Otto 11986 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., numerous, 06.03.2014, R. Otto 20892 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Argentina, Bolivia and Galápagos Islands.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

The collections cited above correspond in every detail with subsp. capitatospicatum, not with subsp. coromandelianum. They are characterized by having dense, glomerate axillary inflorescences (vs. flowers usually solitary), larger leaves with adaxial leaf surface with 4-rayed hairs (simple hairs absent) and its very prominently cuspidate fruits (Hill, 1982Hill, S. R. 1982. A monograph of the genus Malvastrum – III. Rhodora 839: 317–409.).

Subsp. coromandelianum also occurs in La Palma, although perhaps less frequently so. For instance:

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves parallel Avenida de las Nieves, gravelly riverbed with Waltheria indica L., several, 05.03.2014, R. Otto 20886 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

The three taxa of Malvastrum known to occur in the Canary Islands are distinguished as follows (modified from Hill, 1982Hill, S. R. 1982. A monograph of the genus Malvastrum – III. Rhodora 839: 317–409.; and Correll & Correll, 1982Correll, D. S. & Correll, H. B. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Including the Turks and Caios Islands). J. Cramer, Vaduz.):

1. Mature carpels without apical awn, at most with a blunt protuberance less than 0.2 mm. Staminal column sparsely pubescent. Adaxial leaf surface mostly with 4(5) rayed stellate hairs
........................................................................................................ M. corchorifolium

-. Mature carpels with an apical awn more than 0.2 mm and two dorsal spines. Staminal column glabrous. Adaxial leaf surface with 4 rayed stellate or with simple hairs
........................................................................................................ 2

2. Annual or perennial herb with several main stems to about 1 m tall. Flowers solitary in leaf axils, somewhat apically congested with age. Adaxial leaf surface usually covered with simple hairs
........................................................................................................ M. coromandelianum subsp. coromandelianum

-. Mostly perennial herb with single main stem up to 1.5 m tall. Flowers in congested axillary racemes. Adaxial leaf surface usually covered with bilateral 4 rayed stellate hairs
........................................................................................................ M. coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum

Oenothera jamesii Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1(3): 493 (1840) (Fig. 14) (Onagraceae).

Figure 14. Oenothera jamesii, Mazo, roadside, September 2010 (left); San Isidro, roadside at night, August 2004 (right) (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, roadside LP-301, ca. 600 m, 5 individuals, 30.08.2004, R. Otto 10094 (pers. herb. RO, det. K. Rostański 2005 as Oenothera longissima Rydb.); ibid., three plants, 28.09.2012, R. Otto 19795 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, rocky slope of roadside LP-206, several individuals, self-sown, 28.629832º N, 17.779039º W, 410 m, 15.08.2009, R. Otto 15416 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., two fruiting individuals and several rosettes, 12.03.2014, R. Otto 20997 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Barranco de la Zarcita, Camino la Muralla, wasteland in dry gravelly riverbed, ca. 25 plants, self-sown, 01.09.2010, R. Otto 17322 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: North America, naturalized in Japan, South Africa and in the Canary Islands (Dietrich et al., 1997Dietrich, W., Wagner, W. L & Raven, P. H. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera Section Oenothera Subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae) (Systematic Botany Monographs, 50). The American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Ann Arbor.).

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Perhaps initially a garden escape, Oenothera jamesii is here confirmed from the Canary Islands. This species and O. longissima Rydb. are closely related and not easily separated. However, in the La Palma specimens, flower buds are quadrangular and floral tubes persistent on the ovary after anthesis, characteristic features of O. jamesii. Other characters (capsule and seed, leaf width; see Dietrich et al., 1997Dietrich, W., Wagner, W. L & Raven, P. H. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera Section Oenothera Subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae) (Systematic Botany Monographs, 50). The American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Ann Arbor.) seem to be less reliable.

Oenothera jamesii has been reported from Tenerife before but this species probably no longer occurs there (A. Reyes-Betancort, pers. comm., 2009).

Orobanche nana (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 91 (1890) (Orobanchaceae).

Phelipanche nana (Reut.) Soják

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Camino Monte de Pueblo, sweet potato field, several individuals, 08.03.2001, R. Otto 17691 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., flower garden, several, 12.03.2014, R. Otto 20996 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: S Europe, N Africa, W Asia and Macaronesia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Oxalis latifolia Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 5: 237, t. 467 (1821) (Oxalidaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, potato field, numerous, 15.08.2005, R. Otto 11243 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, Charco Azul, banana plantation, 23.08.2009, R. Otto 15458 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Los Sauces, Calle Higueritas, sweet potato field, 330 m, 02.10.2012, R. Otto 19821 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., Los Sauces, public green opposite townhall, weed in flower bed, abundant, 04.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Mexico and Peru. Widely naturalized as a weed in mild climates.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C, F (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: invasive.

Oxalis latifolia is a very common and troublesome weed in gardens, public greens, agricultural fields, orchards, etc.

Papaver hybridum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 506 (1753) (Papaveraceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, abundant as weed in vineyard, ca. 1000 m, 26.08.2010, R. Otto 17283 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Lomo de las Breveras, wasteland, numerous, ca. 1100 m, with P. setigerum DC., 23.05.2013, R. Otto 20413 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Mediterranean area, Macaronesia. Naturalized in North America.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Papaver setigerum DC., Fl. Franc. ed. 3, 5: 585 (1815) (Papaveraceae).

Papaver somniferum L. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Arcang.

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, as weed in vineyard, ca. 1000 m, 23.09.2007, R. Otto 13329 (pers. herb. RO); Barlovento, Laguna de Barlovento, wasteland and storage area, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19100 (pers. herb. RO); Tijarafe, Lomo de las Breveras, wasteland, ca. 1100 m, with P. hybridum L., 23.05.2013, R. Otto 20194 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Eurasia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. in Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. ser. 5, 2: 296 (1851) (Urticaceae).

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Los Llanos de Aridane, Argual, T-junction LP-1and LP-2, weed in irrigated green space, roadside and roadside ditch, numerous individuals, 16.08.2006, R. Otto 8772 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Fuencaliente, gas station on LP-2, roadside and green space, 738 m, 22.08.2006, R. Otto 9317 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Villa de Mazo, Lodero, roadside in front of banana plantation near airport, 20.08.2009, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, hotel garden, weed in lawn, numerous in disc of palm trunks, 30.08.2009, R. Otto 15528 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, harbour mole, weed in planters, 12.10.2011, R. Otto 18796 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, San Pedro, ornamental plant nursery and market garden, numerous in various pots, 09.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: tropical America. Widely cultivated ornamental (“artillery plant”) but also a troublesome weed in garden centers and nurseries.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized (locally)?

Podranea ricasoliana (Tanfani) Sprague, Fl. Cap. 4(2): 450 (1904) (Fig. 15) (Bignoniaceae).

Figure 15. Podranea ricasoliana, Barlovento, September 2013 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, former cultivated land on Travesía Casco Urbano, now widely overgrown, 29.09.2012, R. Otto 19802 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, San Pedro, slope alongside Camino de Barranco de Aguacencio, 23.05.2013, R. Otto 20180 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, alongside Carretera Timibúcar, rock facing a former cultivated area, now overgrown with Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Cardiospermum grandiflorum Sw. and Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose, ca. 80 m, 02.10.2013, R. Otto 20748 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: South Africa. Widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics as a climbing ornamental.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized (locally), potentially invasive?

Podranea ricasoliana is a frequent escape from cultivation, especially in the lower zones (up to ca. 600 m), mostly in the eastern and northern parts of the island. It overgrows rocks, stone walls and embankments, former agricultural fields and gardens. This species grows so vigourously that wild and planted populations are often hard to distinguish.

Polygonum arenastrum Boreau, Fl. Centre France (ed. 3), 2: 559 (1857) (Polygonaceae).

= P. aviculare subsp. depressum (Meisn.) Arcang.

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, Lodero, near airport, roadside LP-205, 24.08.1999, R. Otto 1464 (pers. herb. RO, conf. R. Wißkirchen 2013); Breña Alta, near San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, wasteland alongside Camino la Muralla, 03.09.2010, R. Otto 17330 (pers. herb. RO, det. R. Wißkirchen 2013, dupl. BR); ibid., San Isidro, roadside LP-301, near km 18, 13.10.2011, R. Otto 18801 (pers. herb. RO, conf. R. Wißkirchen 2013); San Andrés y Sauces, on LP-104 (TF-V-8113) from Bermúdez (resp. LP-1) 150 m towards San Andrés, agricultural storage areas with Chloris pycnothrix Trin., 215 m, 26.05.2013, R. Otto 20271 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, Carretera de la Cumbre (LP-3), Zona Industrial El Molino, wasteland with ruderal vegetation, several, 230 m, 03.06.2013, R. Otto 20385 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Tijarafe, Aguatavar, parking roadside LP-1, several individuals, 04.09.2013, R. Otto 20760 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Europe. Widely naturalized in North America.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Portulaca granulatostellulata (Poelln.) C. Ricceri & Arrigoni in Parlatorea 4: 93 (2000) (Portulacaceae).

P. oleracea L. subsp. granulatostellulata (Poelln.) Danin & H. G. Baker

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, public green, 07.09.2005, R. Otto 11103 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, El Puente, pavement, 28.08.2007, R. Otto 19419 (pers. herb. RO, det J. Walter 2013); ibid., harbour, cobbles, 01.09.2007, R. Otto 19327 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, sandy beach, 17.05.2012, R. Otto 19326 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); San Andrés y Sauces, Puerto Espíndola, harbour, parking, 02.10.2012, R. Otto 19833 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Zona Industrial El Molino, roadside and wasteland with ruderal vegetation alongside the street, several, 230 m, 09.10.2012, R. Otto 19862 (pers. herb. RO); Fuencaliente, Las Indias, near Playa de Zamorra, roadside, between banana plantations, numerous, 31.05.2013, R. Otto 20341 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta near San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, roadside and wasteland on Camino la Muralla, 03.06.2013, R. Otto 20323 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, Lodero, roadside, between banana plantation, 09.10.2013, R. Otto 20785 (pers. herb. RO) [selection of about 35 collections].

Origin: subcosmopolitan. Probably the most common microspecies of the Portulaca oleracea aggregate (Danin et al., 1978Danin, A., Baker, I. & Baker, H. G. 1978. Cytogeography and taxonomy of the Portulaca oleracea L. polyploid complex. Israel Journal of Botany 27: 177–211. ).

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, T, C, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Portulaca granulatostellulata appears to be the most common (micro-) species of the genus in La Palma. However, the separation of this taxon and P. papillatostellulata (Danin & H. G. Baker) Danin is not always straightforward and specimens with intermediate seed morphology have frequently been observed. This holds true for the following collections:

Spain, La Palma: Tazacorte, El Time, Barranco de Las Angustias, roadside, 02.09.2006, R. Otto 19423 (pers. herb. RO, det. J. Walter 2013); San Andrés y Sauces, Puerto Espíndola, harbour, parking, 15.08.2007, R. Otto 19424 (pers. herb. RO, det. J. Walter 2013); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, harbour, cobbles, 01.09.2007, R. Otto 19422 (pers. herb. RO, det. J. Walter 2013); San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Calle Abajo, numerous individuals in the gravelly moist riverbed of the Barranco del Agua ca. 100 m before mouth of barranco, 10 m, 18.08.2010, R. Otto 19328 (pers. herb. RO, det. J. Walter 2013); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Las Salinas, parking, rough border, 30.08.2010, R. Otto 17305 (pers. herb. RO, det. J. Walter 2013); Fuencaliente, Las Indias, near hotel, roadside, between banana plantations, 07.05.2012, R. Otto 19150 (pers. herb. RO, det. J. Walter 2013).

Similar intermediate seed morphology also occurs in the species pair Portulaca nitida (Danin & H. G. Baker) C. Ricceri & Arrigoni / P. oleracea L. [= Portulaca oleracea subsp. stellata Danin & H. G. Baker, P. stellata (Danin & H. G. Baker) Ricceri & Arrigoni] (J. Walter, pers. comm., 2013). The taxonomy of the Portulaca oleracea species complex is not uncontested. The existence of plants with more or less intermediate seed morphology may suggest that a lower taxonomic rank for these taxa is perhaps more appropriate.

Portulaca nicaraguensis (Danin & H. G. Baker) Danin in Lagascalia 26: 73 (2006) (Fig. 16) (Portulacaceae).

P. oleracea L. subsp. nicaraguensis Danin & H. G. Baker

Figure 16. Portulaca nicaraguensis, Las Indias, May 2013 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Tazacorte, Puerto de Tazacorte, planter, 26.08.2006, R. Otto 19322 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); Tijarafe, El Time, roadside LP-1, 20.08.2007, R. Otto 19356 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); Tazacorte, Barranco de las Angustias, roadside LP-1, 02.09.2007, R. Otto 19320 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Avenida Marítima, cobbles, 02.09.2008, R. Otto 19323 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); Fuencaliente, Las Indias, Carretera la Costa Cerca Vieja, ca. 1 km away from hotels, roadside, alongside banana plantation, 07.05.2012, R. Otto 19148 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); ibid., Playa de Zamorra, roadside between banana plantations, 31.05.2013, R. Otto 20342 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, parking place, rough border, with Digitaria radicosa (J. Presl) Miq., 14.08.2010, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: probably Central America (Nicaragua, Mexico). Now also as a weed in the warm-temperate and subtropical regions of the Old World.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

This seems to be the most thermophilous (micro-) species from the Portulaca oleracea L. aggregate in La Palma. It is restricted to the hottest and driest zones of the island. With its bluish metallic seeds covered with wax, it also is one of the easiest to distinguish.

Portulaca nitida (Danin & H. G. Baker) C. Ricceri & Arrigoni in Parlatorea 4: 93 (2000) (Portulacaceae).

P. oleracea L. subsp. nitida Danin & H. G. Baker

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, La Dehesa, wayside, 12.08.2007, R. Otto 13318 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); ibid., in mango plantation, 12.08.2007, R. Otto 13420 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013); Tazacorte, Puerto de Tazacorte, planters, 08.2008, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Calle Díaz Pimienta, planters, 01.10.2013, R. Otto 20735 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: probably North America. Now widely naturalized as a weed elsewhere.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Portulaca papillatostellulata (Danin & H. G. Baker) Danin in Lagascalia 26: 76 (2006) (Portulacaceae).

P. oleracea L. subsp. papillatostellulata Danin & H. G. Baker

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, Puerto Espíndola, harbour, rough border, 15.08.2007, R. Otto 13419 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, new hospital, border, 01.09.2007, R. Otto 17858 (pers. herb. RO, conf. J. Walter 2013), Sta. Cruz de La Palma, La Dehesa, mango plantation, storage area, numerous individuals, 01.06.2013, R. Otto 20346 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: New World (essentially northern and Central America). Widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Rumex crispus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 335 (1753) subsp. crispus (Polygonaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, San Antonio, fallow land, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6752 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Pedro, Camino de Barranco de Aguacencio, fallow land and wayside, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6756 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Carretera las Nieves, wasteland, 18.08.2005, R. Otto 11133 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Isidro, Camino la Piedad, embankment, numerous, 12.05.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., above San Isidro, near crossing LP-301and Canal de Fuencaliente, fallow land, numerous individuals, 27.09.2013, R. Otto 20711 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Garafía, San Antonio del Monte, fallow land, numerous, 30.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Eurasia. Introduced and naturalized almost worldwide.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: G, T, C, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Rumex crispus is a fast spreading weed in La Palma.

Rumex pulcher L., Sp. Pl. 1: 336 (1753) subsp. pulcher (Polygonaceae).

Subspecies new to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, San Antonio del Monte, several individuals in the surroundings of the Ermita de San Antonio, on bare ground, 920 m, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6753 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Llano Negro, potato field, 1000 m, 15.08.2003, R. Otto 8561 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., San Antonio del Monte, roadside Calle San Antonio, ruderal vegetation, 01.09.2005, R. Otto 11218 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Barlovento, Barranco de Topaciegas, roadside LP-1, 30.09.2013, R. Otto 20721 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: southern and western Europe, North Africa, Southwest Asia. Widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere, for instance in North America.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

In the northern parts of La Palma subsp. pulcher seems to be more frequent than subsp. divaricatus (L.) Arcang.

Rumex ×pratensis Mert. & W. D. J. Koch, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 3, 2: 609 (1826) (Polygonaceae).

= Rumex obtusifolius L. subsp. obtusifolius × R. crispus L.

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, near crossing LP-301 and Canal de Fuencaliente, roadside, with the parent species, three individuals, 28.05.2013, R. Otto 20308 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., near San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, roadside and wasteland on Camino la Muralla, 23.09.2013, R. Otto 20649 (pers. herb. RO).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

This mostly sterile hybrid may occur where-ever the parent species grow in close proximity.

Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Fl. Ind. Occid. 2(2): 1150 (1800) (Cucurbitaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: near Puerto Tazacorte, slope of Barranco de las Angustias, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6720 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Isidro, roadside, 24.08.2005, R. Otto 11146 (pers. herb. RO); Puntallana, La Galga, El Pósito, former cultivated land, with Delairea odorata L., 20.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., slopes on Calle Lomo Estrello near Punto Limpio, abundant wild individuals overgrowing the barranco, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20700 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Pedro, alongside Camino de Barranco de Aguacencio, 23.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, alongside Carretera Timibúcar, rock facing a former cultivated area, ca. 80 m, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: tropical America. Widely cultivated for its edible fruit elsewhere and frequently escaping and naturalizing.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.), T (Verloove & Reyes-Betancort, 2011Verloove, F. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2011. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2011.v30.007).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized and locally invasive.

Especially in the lower zones in the northern part of La Palma Sechium edule locally behaves like an aggresive invader (a transformer in the sense of Richardson et al., 2000Richardson, D. M., Pyšek, P., Rejmánek, M., Barbour, M. G., Panetta, F. D. & West, C. J. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6: 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-4642.2000.00083.x). Elsewhere a frequent but ephemeral escape (see also Verloove & Reyes-Betancort, 2011Verloove, F. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2011. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2011.v30.007).

Sida spinosa L., Sp. Pl. 2: 683–684 (1753) var. angustifolia (Lam.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. I. 1: 74 (1859) (Malvaceae).

S. angustifolia Lam.

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Tazacorte, Puerto de Tazacorte, Barranco Tenisca, surroundings of the sewage station on LP-120, in ruderal vegetation of roadside, numerous, with Sida rhombifolia L. var. maderensis (Lowe) Lowe and Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke subsp. capitatospicatum (Kuntze) S. R. Hill, 16.08.2006, R. Otto 12019 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., roadside, 28.656239º N, 17.940446º W, 37 m, ca. 100 individuals, 06.03.2014, R. Otto 20891 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: pantropical.

Degree of naturalization: naturalized (locally).

Silene nocturna L., Sp. Pl. 1: 416 (1753) (Caryophyllaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, therophyte association beside the road, 14.03.2011, R. Otto 17816 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Mediterranean area, western Asia, Macaronesia. Introduced as a weed in North America.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: G, T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized?

Solanum abutiloides (Griseb.) Bitter & Lillo in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 136 (1913) (Fig. 17) (Solanaceae).

Figure 17. Solanum abutiloides, San Miguel, May 2013 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Miranda, near Calle Camelias, weed in orchard, several shrubs, with Solanum mauritianum L., 26.08.2005, R. Otto 20553 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., garden wall, 05.05.2012, R. Otto 19073 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., near Calle San Miguel, Barranco de Laja de Llanito, edge of dry gravelly riverbed, several small individuals and one bush about 2 m tall, 12.05.2012, R. Otto 19207 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Camino la Laja del Barranco, riverbed beneath Carretera el Zumacal, some tree-like bushes up to 3 m tall, 13.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Argentina and Bolivia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T (Verloove & Reyes-Betancort, 2011Verloove, F. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2011. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2011.v30.007).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized. Potentially an invasive weed.

In recent years Solanum abutiloides is increasing in the surroundings of El Llanito, San Miguel and Miranda (Breña Alta).

Solanum alatum Moench, Methodus: 474 (1794) (Solanaceae).

= S. villosum Mill. subsp. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Edmonds

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, Parque Cultural La Zarza, several, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6705 (pers. herb. RO); Puntallana, Cubo de la Galga, laurisilva, wayside, several, 15.08.2002, R. Otto 7703 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, Los Sauces, roadside, 15.08.2003, R. Otto 8540 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, LP-4, roadside, 650 m, 05.09.2008, R. Otto 14402 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, above San Isidro, LP-301, roadside, 900 m, numerous, 12.10.2011, R. Otto 18787 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., near Refugio del Pilar, parking, Pinar, several, 1450 m, 14.05.2012, R. Otto 19236 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Old World. Now a cosmopolitan weed.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, T, C, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.). See also Verloove & Reyes-Betancort (2011Verloove, F. & Reyes-Betancort, J. A. 2011. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Collectanea Botanica 30: 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2011.v30.007).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Solanum decipiens Opiz, Ökon. Fl. Böhm. 3: 24 (1841) (Solanaceae).

= Solanum nigrum L. subsp. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely

New to the flora of the Canary Islands.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, above San Isidro, near Refugio del Pilar, parking, Pinar, several individuals, 1450 m, 14.05.2012, R. Otto 19520 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: precise origin unknown (see Edmonds & Chweya, 1997Edmonds, J. M. & Chweya, J. A. 1997. Black nightshades. Solanum nigrum L. and related species (Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops, 15). Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gattersleben & International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.), distributed in Australia and Europe.

Degree of naturalization: ephemeral? Potentially weedy.

Solanum decipiens is perhaps overlooked in the Canary Islands because of its great similarity to S. nigrum L. Both species are easily distinguished by their hair types: S. decipiens is abundantly hairy with hairs mostly glandular and patent, whereas S. nigrum is usually sparsely hairy with hairs appressed and eglandular.

Sonchus tenerrimus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 794 (1753) (Asteraceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, new hospital, roadside and ornamental flower bed, weedy, 15.08.2004, R. Otto 10128 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, roadside and public green, 13.08.2009, R. Otto 15412 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Las Nieves, edge of parking, spreading in dense ruderal vegetation, 04.03.2011, R. Otto 17628 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Alta, Buenavista, former airport, excavation material overgrown with ruderal vegetation, abundant, 10.03.2011, R. Otto 17613 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., 10.03.2011, R. Otto 17725 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., San Pedro, public green before Museo de Puros, weedy, also as epiphyte on trunks of Phoenix canariensis, 28.04.2012, R. Otto 18975 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: Mediterranean area, Macaronesia. Introduced elsewhere as a weed, for instance in North America and Australia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, G, T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Sonchus tenerrimus is a frequent and very variable species of disturbed habitats, roadsides, rocks and walls. It was also seen epiphytic on Phoenix canariensis Chabaud.

Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 213 (1843) (Caryophyllaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas near beach, cracks in pavement, 12.08.2008, R. Otto 14259 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Calle el Fuerte, ruderal beach area below Zona Industrial, numerous, 28.08.2008, R. Otto 14368 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, small ruderal wasteland, 21.05.2013, R. Otto 20152 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., wasteland near former sewage works, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20254 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Calle Abenguareme, coastal zone, bare ground, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Eurasia. It has become subcosmopolitan.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C, F, L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin, Man. Fl. Belgique (ed. 2): 19 (1866) (Caryophyllaceae).

S. media (L.) Vill. subsp. pallida (Dumort.) Asch. & Graebn.

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, border of flower bed, 13.03.2011, R. Otto 17790 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Calle Plaza, numerous in plantation of palms, 29.04.2012, R. Otto 18976 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Pedro, Calle del Cura, cobbles, abundant, 30.04.2012, R. Otto 18999 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Calle el Pilar, cobbles, 12.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Europe. Introduced and naturalized in North America and Mexico.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: L (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Stellaria pallida seems to be not rare but overlooked and/or often confused with the very similar S. media (L.) Vill.

Tragopogon porrifolius L., Sp. Pl. 2: 789 (1753) subsp. australis (Jord.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 462 (1879) (Asteraceae).

Subspecies new to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, weedy in vineyard, several individuals, 28.08.2008, R. Otto 14360 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Garafía, Las Tricias, Calle Cruz de Llanito near church, roadside, 790 m, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19127 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Origin: Europe, western Asia, North Africa. Introduced and naturalized in North America, Pacific Islands and Australia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands.: G, T, C (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172., without indication of subspecies).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

All specimens of Tragopogon porrifolius seen so far in La Palma belong to this subspecies.

Tribulus terrestris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 387 (1753) (Zygophyllaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Puerto de Tazacorte, Barranco de las Angustias, roadside, 15.08.2001, R. Otto 6668 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Los Llanos de Aridane, LP-2 near Argual, wasteland and roadside, 20.08.2007, R. Otto 13339 (pers. herb. RO); LP-2, between Argual and Tazacorte, roadside, numerous individuals, 27.08.2008, R. Otto 14365 (pers. herb. RO).

Origin: warm-temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. Widely naturalized as a weed in the New World.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: T, C, F (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized on the west side of La Palma.

Trifolium repens L., Sp. Pl. 2: 767 (1753) subsp. repens (Fabaceae).

New to the flora of La Palma.

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, new hospital, weed in lawn, several, 18.08.2001, R. Otto 6715 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, near beach, lawn weed, 07.05.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Garafía, La Mata, roadside, 1040 m, 27.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Alta, San Pedro, storage area for construction material, 30.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, weed in lawn, 05.03.2014, R. Otto 20887 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, Barranco de la Zarcita, grass-covered path, 07.03.2014, R. Otto 20912 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Isidro, Barranco de Aduares, overgrown path, 11.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Origin: Europe. Widely naturalized in Africa, America, Asia and Australia.

Known distribution in the Canary Islands: H, C, F (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2009Acebes Ginovés, J. R., León Arencibia, M. C., Rodríguez Navarro, M. L. et al. 2009. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A. (Eds.), Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) (2.ª ed.). Gobierno de Canarias, La Laguna: 119–172.), recently also recorded in T (Santos-Guerra et al., 2013bSantos-Guerra, A., Reyes-Betancort, J. A., Padrón Mederos, M. A. & Mesa Coello, R. 2013b. Plantas poco o nada conocidas de la flora vascular silvestre de las Islas Canarias. Botanica Complutensis 37: 99–108.).

Degree of naturalization: naturalized.

Trifolium repens is introduced as lawn weed and much increasing in the past years. It is also spreading to natural habitats. Confusion with the related and very similar T. occidentale Coombe, recently also found in identical habitats in La Palma (see below), is not unlikely (Coombe, 1961Coombe, D. E. 1961. Trifolium occidentale, a new species related to T. repens L. Watsonia 5: 68–87.; Coombe & Morisset, 1967Coombe, D. E. & Morisset, P. 1967. Further observations on Trifolium occidentale. Watsonia 6: 271–275.).

Ephemeral taxa

New to the flora of the Canary Islands

Ajuga reptans L. (Lamiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Los Llanos de Aridane, Calle Díaz Pimienta, weed in lawn, 27.08.2010 and 29.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., Calle Real, abundant as weed in lawn, 29.05.2013, R. Otto 20333 (pers. herb. RO).

Avena hispanica Ard. [= Avena strigosa Schreb. subsp. agraria (Brot.) Tab. Morais] (Poaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, LP-301 below Montaña La Pavóna, San Isidro, near crossing LP-301 and Canal de Fuencaliente, fallow land and roadside, scattered individuals, 680 m, 30.08.2008, R. Otto 14375 (pers. herb. RO).

Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, hotel garden, weed in Stenotaphrum lawn, scattered individuals, 04.06.2013, R. Otto 20375 (pers. herb. RO).

Buddleja davidii Franch. (Scrophulariaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Calle el Rosal, rough building area, three small bushes, 15.08.2007, R. Otto 13320 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, San Isidro, Camino la Pavóna, fallow land, 24.08.2007, R. Otto 13325 (pers. herb. RO).

Canna glauca L. (Cannaceae).

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, LP-104 near San Andrés, 200 m N of T-junction LP-1042, small moist barranco between banana plantations, with Canna indica L. and Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, 70 m, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20691 (pers. herb. RO; photo conf. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014).

Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae).

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, LP-104 near Llano del Pino, crack in concrete roadside ditch, ca. 60 cm tall and flowering, repeatedly truncated and therefore with sidebranches and bushy, 22.09.2013, R. Otto 20646 (pers. herb. RO).

Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange subsp. minus (Plantaginaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, ca. 1000 m, rare as weed in vineyard, 23.08.2007, R. Otto 13269 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex. W. D. J. Koch & Ziz (Amaranthaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, above San Isidro, near crossing LP-301 and Canal de Fuencaliente, dense ruderal vegetation by roadside, numerous, 690 m, 25.08.2005, R. Otto 11224 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., 25.08.2005, R. Otto 11231 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai (Cucurbitaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Calle Rosal, roadside, 22.08.2005, R. Otto 11164 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, wasteland near former sewage works, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20247 (pers. herb. RO).

Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (Polygonaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Plaza de San Fernando, public green and wayside, many seedlings between fallen leaves under the parent bushes, 04.06.2013, R. Otto 20393 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, many seedlings, weedy in border, 09.03.2014, R. Otto 20958 (pers. herb. RO).

Crassula tetragona L. (Crassulaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Buenavista, former airport, edge of the former airstrip, some individuals of different age close to each other, 08.03.2014, R. Otto 20928 (pers. herb. RO; photo conf. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014).

Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Miranda, roadside LP-202, three individuals, 23.05.2013, R. Otto 20184 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (Cucurbitaceae).

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, Camino Puerto Espíndola ca. 250 m before Espíndola, moist ditch and water channel below wet rocks, several large individuals creeping some meters over the dense vegetation, with Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis, Bidens pilosa L., Cyperus eragrostis Lam., Galium aparine L., Helosciadium nodiflorum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Melia azedarach L., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Solanum nigrum L., 28.809215º N, 17.763857º W, 32 m, 24.05.2013, R. Otto 20210 (pers. herb. RO). Also seen several times in similar locations, e.g. Los Sauces (Barranco del Agua), San Pedro (Barranco de la Zarcita) and Sta. Cruz de La Palma (Barranco de las Nieves), 10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Probably native to Central America, now widely cultivated as vegetable. In La Palma it is the most commonly cultivated Cucurbita species and sometimes escaping. Wild occurrences are probably related with sewage works or birdseed.

Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth (Lythraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, public green, irrigated lawn, formerly planted nearby as ornamental in flowerbeds and now spreading, 22.08.2009, R. Otto 15455 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., 05.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Digitaria nuda Schumach. (Poaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Amargavinos, newly arranged disc of palm trunks, 17.05.2012, R. Otto 19259 and 19260 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Possibly overlooked and/or confused with Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler. The six species of Digitaria known to occur in the Canary Islands are distinguished as follows (modified from Clayton & Renvoize, 1982Clayton, W. D. & Renvoize, S. A. 1982. Gramineae (Part 3). In: Polhill, R. M. (Ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam: 451–898.; Goetghebeur & Van der Veken, 1989Goetghebeur, P. & Van der Veken, P. 1989. Digitaria Hall. In: Launert, E. & Pope, G. V. (Ed.), Flora Zambesiaca 10(3). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: 133–178.; Verloove, 2008Verloove, F. 2008. Studies within the genus Digitaria Haller (Poaceae, Panicoideae) in southwestern Europe. Candollea 63: 227–233.; and Wilhalm, 2009Wilhalm, T. 2009. Digitaria ciliaris in Europe. Willdenowia 39: 247–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.3372/wi.39.39203):

1. Most spikelets ternate (in groups of three on the rachis). Upper glume about as long as spikelet. Upper lemma dark brown at maturity
........................................................................................................Digitaria violascens

-. Most spikelets binate (in pairs on the rachis). Upper glume always distinctly shorter than spikelet. Upper lemma pale at maturity
........................................................................................................ 2

2. Plant perennial, caespitose. Culm
erect
........................................................................................................ D. nodosa

-. Plant annual (rarely short lived perennial). Culms often straggling
........................................................................................................ 3

3. Rachis smooth (or with few very small prickles). Plant slender, with 2–3(–4) racemes
........................................................................................................ D. radicosa

-. Rachis scabrous throughout, with numerous, very distinct prickles. Plant usually with more numerous racemes
........................................................................................................ 4

4. Lower glume absent or an obscure rim (at most 0.1 mm long). Spikelets 1.7–2.5(–2.8) mm long
........................................................................................................ D.nuda

-. Lower glume always present, at least 0.2 mm long. Spikelets 2.5–3.5 mm long
........................................................................................................ 5

5. Lateral nerves of lower lemma scabrous (almost) throughout. Upper glume at most ½ as long as spikelet
........................................................................................................ D. sanguinalis

-. Lateral nerves of lower lemma smooth (or rarely with a few prickles in the upper third). Upper glume usually more than ½ as long as spikelet
........................................................................................................ D. ciliaris

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Fig. 11) (Pontederiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, small water reservoir, several individuals, with Landoltia punctata (G. Mey.) Les & D. J. Crawford, Helosciadium nodiflorum W. D. J. Koch, Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. and algal bloom, 03.09.2013, R. Otto 20750 (pers. herb. RO).

Euphorbia leucocephala Lotsy (Euphorbiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, between pavement slabs alongside a front garden, some individuals, 01.10.2012, R. Otto 19819 (pers. herb. RO).

Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, above Los Cancajos, some small individuals alongside LP-5 and on the rocky slope, originating from specimens planted as ornamentals, 23.09.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Miranda, small and partially filled barranco on LP-4, with Agave sp., Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr., Kleinia neriifolia Haw., Opuntia sp. and Rumex lunaria L., shrub ca. 150 cm tall, 09.03.2014, R. Otto 20955 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, La Salemera, some small individuals on a rocky slope (partially dump) close to the sea, with Kalanchoe ×houghtonii, throw-out, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Possibly overlooked and under-recorded. Fallen branches easily root and throw-outs may survive for many years on barranco slopes, wasteland, etc.

Felicia amoena Levyns subsp. amoena (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Las Breñas, roadside, foot of wall, small bush, escaped from cultivation, 30.08.2008, R. Otto 14378 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier (Crassulaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, surroundings of Urbanización Las Salinas 3, wasteland, former throw-out, several flowering individuals, 02.03.2014, R. Otto 20841 (pers. herb. RO; photo conf. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014); San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, water channel alongside Calle San Sebastián, 09.03.2014, R. Otto 20947 (pers. herb. RO; photo conf. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014).

Lotus corniculatus L. (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, public green, as weed in lawn, with Cerastium fontanum Baumg. subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet and Lolium perenne L., 15.08.2003, R. Otto 8601 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Maurandya barclaiana Lindl. [≡ Asarina barclaiana (Lindley) Pennell] (Plantaginaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, El Puente, construction site, joint of step, 03.10.2012, R. Otto 19839 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., 10.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Medicago ×varia Martyn (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, dry wasteland near former sewage station, several individuals, 23.09.2013, R. Otto 20665 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Melampodium montanum Benth. (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, roadside near public green, some individuals, 19.08.2006, R. Otto 11371 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae).

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, Puerto Espíndola, Camino Puerto Espíndola, a two years old individual about 30 cm tall, roadside between foot of a stone wall and asphalted surface, 28.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Los Cancajos, foot of wall, 02.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves alongside Avenida Manuel Gónzales Méndez, two fruiting individuals of 2 m tall in cracks of foot of concrete wall, 05.03.2014, R. Otto 20883 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Oxalis adenophylla Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. (Oxalidaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, vineyard, under planted Juniperus bushes, probably introduced with plant containers, scattered individuals, 21.08.2009, R. Otto 15450 (pers. herb. RO).

Pascalia glauca Ortega [≡ Wedelia glauca (Ortega) Hicken] (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Caserío Miranda, dry waste land, ca. 15 plants, 15.08.2002, R. Otto 12482 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., 08.2003, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey (Fig. 18) (Passifloraceae).

Figure 18. Passiflora mollissima, Barranco de la Galga, August 2008 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: Puntallana, Barranco de la Galga, trail to Cubo de la Galga, ca. 1.5 km uphill parking, edge of the riverbed, one (?) vigorous plant climbing in Rubus scrub, 23.08.2008, R. Otto 14318 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth. (Boraginaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, scattered in freshly sown grass border, 19.08.2007, R. Otto 13294 (pers. herb. RO).

Plerandra elegantissima (Veitch ex Mast.) Lowry, G. M. Plunkett & Frodin [≡ Schefflera elegantissima (Veitch ex Mast.) Lowry & Frodin ≡ Dizygotheca elegantissima (Veitch ex Mast.) R. Vig. & Guillaumin] (Araliaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, El Puente, seedling as weed in Dracaena pot, 24.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, hotel garden and in front of hotel, many seedlings and small individuals, weedy under bushes and in disturbed lawn, also in cracks of pavement, cultivated specimens nearby, 10.03.2014, R. Otto 21013 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Rumex cristatus DC. (Polygonaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Camino la Piedad, embankment, 28.645845º N, 17.800424º W, ca. 10 vigorous plants, 12.05.2012, R. Otto 19202 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., 09.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Sagina apetala Ard. subsp. erecta (Hornem.) F. Herm. (= Sagina micropetala Rauschert = S. filicaulis Jord. ≡ S. apetala auct. non Ard.) (Caryophyllaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Amargavinos, disc of palm trunks, numerous with Digitaria radicosa (J. Presl) Miq., 17.05.2012, R. Otto 19256 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

In the Canary Islands this species may have been overlooked and/or confused with the very similar Sagina apetala subsp. apetala L.

Silene armeria L. (Caryophyllaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Cantillo, roadside, foot of retaining wall, several individuals, 21.05.2013, R. Otto 20141 (pers. herb. RO).

Tradescantia sillamontana Matuda (Commelinaceae).

Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Barranco del Agua, on top of retaining wall of banana plantation, 03.09.2013, R. Otto 20754 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Calle Salinas, waste land, throw-out, small individual, 02.03.2014, R. Otto 20856 (pers. herb. RO).

Trifolium occidentale Coombe (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, freshly sown grass border, several, with Trifolium repens, 19.08.2007, R. Otto 13272 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., abundant in lawn, 24.09.2013, R. Otto 20671 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Xanthium cf. saccharatum Wallr. (Asteraceae) (det. R. Wisskirchen).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves below Plaza San Fernando, dry exposed gravelly riverbed, a single individual, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20231 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Zoysia pacifica (Goudswaard) M. Hotta & Kuroki [≡ Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. var. pacifica Goudswaard] (Poaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Puerto de Tazacorte, T-junction Avenida del Emigrante and LP-2, creeping out of the green space with Stenotaphrum Trin. lawn nearby, 30.04.2012, R. Otto 19095 (pers. herb. RO); Los Llanos de Aridane, Argual, junction LP-1and LP-2, many patches in the holey asphalt of the Camino del Álamo and roadside, creeping out of the green space with Stenotaphrum lawn nearby, 285 m, 30.09.2012, R. Otto 19807 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

New to the flora of La Palma

Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, Barranco de Blas, slope, escape from nearby plantation, 04.05.2012, R. Otto 19057 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Acalypha supera Forssk. (= Acalypha brachystachya Hornem.) (Euphorbiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, as weed in hotel garden (also abundant in greenhouse), 01.09.2008, R. Otto 14396 (pers. herb. RO, conf. H. J. Esser 2011, dupl. M, BR).

Acanthus mollis L. (Acanthaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Laguna de Barlovento, waste land, embankment of dumping site for excavation material, 20.08.2010, R. Otto 17254 (pers. herb. RO); San Andrés y Sauces, Los Sauces, Camino Mirador de Llano Clara, rocky slope, wayside, small population, ca. 470 m, relic of cultivation?, 02.06.2013, R. Otto 20360 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck (Asparagaceae s. l., Agavoideae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Barranco Amargavino, 18.08.2000, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, LP-401 crossing Barranco del Carmen Dorador, forest track, two rosettes, 260 m, 24.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Alta, San Pedro, Camino Barranco de Aguacencio, wayside, some overgrown individuals, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., Breña Baja, El Socorro, Barranco de Aguacencio, Camino la Laja del Barranco, riverbed, several rosettes, with Sansevieria trifasciata Prain.,13.03.2014, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Aloe maculata All. [= Aloe saponaria (Aiton) Haw.] (Xanthorrhoeaceae s. l., Asphodeloideae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, embankment on LP-202 between San Pedro y Las Ledas, 24.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.; photo det. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014); ibid., Camino la Piedad, rocky slope, wayside, 30.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, LP-401 crossing Barranco del Carmen Dorador, rocky slope between roadside and forest path in the riverbed, some several years old clusters, with numerous Kalanchoe ×houghtonii nearby, 255 m, 24.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Some of the plants found in the wild in La Palma may belong to hybrid complexes involving Aloe maculata, rather than the true species itself.

Amaranthus blitum L. subsp. emarginatus (Salzm. ex Moq.) Carretero, Muñoz Garm. & Pedrol (Amaranthaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, wasteland near former sewage works, 23.09.2013, R. Otto 20664 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Amaranthus graecizans L. subsp. sylvestris (Vill.) Brenan (Amaranthaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, Franceses, corn field, numerous individuals, with Malva nicaeensis All., 20.08.2002, R. Otto 7528 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Amaranthus muricatus (Moq.) Hieron. (Amaranthaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, beach, border and planting of palm trees and other ornamentals close to the sea, numerous, 23.08.2000, R. Otto 4688 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Garafía, Llano Negro, Calle Cueva de Agua, roadside, numerous, 01.09.2005, R. Otto 11240 (pers. herb. RO).

Amaryllis belladonna L. [= Brunsvigia rosea (Lam.) L. S. Hannibal] (Amaryllidaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Travesía Casco Urbano, former cultivated land, numerous, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20715 (pers. herb. RO); surroundings of Barlovento, several times and often numerous and large clumps by roadsides, embankments, near abandoned houses, former gardens, etc., 25.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs. RO); Breña Alta, Barranco de la Zarcita, wasteland in riverbed, small clumps, probably former throw-out, 23.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Garafía, La Mata, former cultivated land alongside the LP-1, 04.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Anacyclus clavatus (Desf). Pers. (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, Barranco de Aduares, dirt road, 12.05.2012, R. Otto 19213 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, Camino la Muralla, fallow land, 23.09.2013, R. Otto 20654 (pers. herb. RO).

Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. (Polygonaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Los Llanos de Aridane, LP-1 from Argual to Barranco de las Angustias, roadside, cracks in concrete drain gutter and foot of retaining wall, some specimens escaped from nearby cultivation, 16.08.2006, R. Otto 12029 (pers. herb. RO).

Avena strigosa Schreb. subsp. strigosa (Poaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, above San Isidro, LP-301 near km 4, fallow land and roadside, abundant, 670 m, 12.05.2012, R. Otto 19203 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch (Brassicaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, St. Domingo, construction site, ruderal vegetation on excavation material, several plants, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19123 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold [= Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum.] (Fig. 19) (Apocynaceae).

Figure 19. Cascabela thevetia, Los Cancajos, former cultivated land with dense shrubby ruderal vegetation, with Kleinia neriifolia and Artemisia thuscula, May 2013 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, near Urbanización Las Salinas 3, former cultivated land, shrubby ruderal vegetation with Artemisia thuscula Cav. and Kleinia neriifolia Haw. alongside Calle Salinas, solitary shrub, 03.05.2012, R. Otto 19046 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques (Asparagaceae s. l., Agavoideae).

Spain, La Palma: Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, Barranco de Blas parallel Calle Caridad Salazar, several individuals growing out the stone wall and at foot of wall, with Centranthus ruber (L.) DC., Crassula multicava Lem., Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. and Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh. nearby, 11.03.2014, R. Otto 20986 (pers. herb. RO).

Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barranco de Juan Mayor, edge of banana plantation, several seedlings below a many years old planted bush and also in the gravelly riverbed nearby, 07.10.2013, R. Otto 20772 (pers. herb. RO).

Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce (= Crassula argentea Thunb.) (Crassulaceae).

Spain, La Palma, Breña Baja, alongside Calle los Cancajos, several individuals on escarpments and rocky slopes, 16.08.2008, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, Barranco de Blas parallel Calle Caridad Salazar, slope and stonewall, escaped from cultivation nearby, several individuals, 04.05.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.; photo det. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Caserío la Portada, barranco slope, throw-out, several individuals, 09.03.2014, R. Otto 20946 (pers. herb. RO).

Euphorbia cyathophora Murray (Euphorbiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, El Puente, weedy in flower pot, several seedlings and small individuals, 01.10.2013, R. Otto 20738 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, base of wall and edge of parking, several small bushes in dense ruderal vegetation, with Sida rhombifolia L. var. canariensis K. Schum. and Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray, 03.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Farfugium japonicum (L.) Kitam. [= Ligularia tussilaginea (Burm. f.) Makino] (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, small parking, several vigorous plants in cracks of pavement, ca. 50 m away from cultivated plants (there also many seedlings), 20.09.2013, R. Otto 20792 (pers. herb. RO).

Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Laguna de Barlovento, overgrown heaps of excavation material and construction waste, several individuals climbing in dense ruderal vegetation, 26.08.2009, R. Otto 15482 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, La Dehesa, mango plantation, many individuals between trees and on rocky slopes, 03.10.2011, R. Otto 18742 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Proteaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, El Puente, construction site, joint of paved stairs, 07.10.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., Velhoco, roadside LP-101, seedling ca. 50 cm tall, growing out of a retaining wall, 19.09.2013, R. Otto 20627 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., La Dehesa, parking before sport centre, many seedlings under planted tree but also some individuals along nearby roadside, 24.09.2013, R. Otto 19262 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, El Pueblo, Calle Caridad Salazar, some seedlings in cobbles and also in the barranco nearby, 22.05.2013, R. Otto 20160 (pers. herb. RO).

Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass. (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Laguna de Barlovento, roadside near entrance to the camping site, 27.08.2007, R. Otto 13256 (pers. herb. RO).

Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, wasteland near former sewage station, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20250 (pers. herb. RO).

Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (Hydrocharitaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Cuesta del Llano de la Cruz, water reservoir in orchard, 28.697543º N, 17.777891º W, 290 m, with Landoltia punctata (G. Mey.) Les & D. J. Crawford and Azolla filiculoides Lam., 15.08.2003, R. Otto 14420 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Much reminiscent of Elodea canadensis Michx. and possibly overlooked.

Impatiens sodenii Engl. & Warb. (= I. oliveri C. H. Wright ex W. Watson) (Fig. 20) (Balsaminaceae).

Figure 20. Impatiens walleriana, San Andrés, September 2011 (left) and Impatiens sodenii, Don Pedro, September 2013 (right) (Photographs: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: San Andrés y Sauces, San Andrés, Camino Cruz Grande, between banana plantations, 35 m, 03.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Garafía, La Mata, roadside LP-1, 1040 m, 04.09.2013, R. Otto 20764 (pers. herb. RO); Villa de Mazo, Calle Caridad Salazar near church, walls of Barranco de Blas, 01.06.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Garafía, Calle Don Pedro between LP-1 and Don Pedro, roadside, escaped from cultivation, ca. 800 m, 30.09.2013, R. Otto 20719 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Cultivated as ornamental but less frequently so than Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. and much rarer as an escape.

Lobelia erinus L. (Campanulaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, El Puente, several seedlings between cobbles, 15.05.2012, R. Otto 19486 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Malcolmia maritima (L.) R. Br. (Brassicaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, public green, several individuals in lawn, with Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. and Commelina diffusa Burm. f., weedy, 19.9.2013, R. Otto 20619 (pers. herb. RO).

Malva nicaeensis All. (Malvaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Franceses, weed in corn field, several individuals, with Amaranthus graecizans L., 20.08.2002, R. Otto 7812 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Medicago sativa L. s. l. (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Montaña de Breña, edge of parking, several, 530 m, 03.09.2002, R. Otto 7507 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Melilotus albus Medik. (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Fuencaliente, Los Canarios, LP-209, parking, dry bare ground, several individuals, 07.05.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.); Breña Alta, Carretera de la Cumbre (LP-3), Zona Industrial El Molino, dry waste area with gappy ruderal vegetation alongside the street, several individuals, 230 m, 21.05.2013, R. Otto 20142 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Mentha ×piperita L. var. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. (Lamiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Puntallana, Casco Urbano, sidewalk, growing out of water pipe, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20694 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Morus alba L. (Moraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Puntallana, La Galga, Barranco de la Galga, wayside, several shrubs, 05.10.2012, R. Otto 19848 (pers. herb. RO).

Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves parallel Avenida las Nieves, dry gravelly riverbed, gappy ruderal vegetation, two individuals, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20245 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); San Andrés y Sauces, near San Andrés, rocky slope on LP-104, several individuals, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20686 (pers. herb. RO).

Opuntia monacantha (Willd.) Haw. (= O. vulgaris Mill.) (Cactaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, small barranco alongside LP-301, 700 m, 10.03.2014, R. Otto 20964 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., Miranda, wayside at foot of stone wall, cultivated nearby, 24.05.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.; photo conf. D. Guillot Ortiz 2014).

Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. subsp. maroccana (Aurich & Podlech) Greuter [≡ Asteriscus spinosus (L.) Sch. Bip. subsp. maroccanus Aurich & Podlech] (Fig. 21) (Asteraceae).

Figure 21. Pallenis spinosa subsp. spinosa (left), Breña Alta, August 2008, priv. herb. R. Otto 14329 and Pallenis spinosa subsp. maroccana (right), Tijarafe, August 2007, priv herb. R. Otto 20964 (Photograph: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: Tijarafe, Camino Bellido, several individuals on dry wasteland alongside a vineyard, 1100 m, 23.08.2007, R. Otto 13289 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Passiflora edulis L. (Passifloraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves parallel Avenida las Nieves, edge of dry gravelly riverbed, some vigorous and fruiting individuals, 03.10.2012, R. Otto 19837 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Phalaris minor Retz. (Poaceae).

Spain, La Palma: El Paso, Centro de Visitantes del Parque Nacional, border near entrance, 30.04.2012, R. Otto 18992 (pers. herb. RO).

Plumbago auriculata Lam. (Plumbaginaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Urbanización Las Salinas 2, ruderal wasteland alongside Calle Salinas, small shrub, 03.05.2012, R. Otto 19044 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Carretera Timibúcar (LP-202), damp rock facing roadside, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., Calle Sebastián Arozena, rocky slope, little shrub, 02.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Portulaca oleracea L. [= Portulaca oleracea subsp. stellata Danin & H. G. Baker = Portulaca stellata (Danin & H. G. Baker) C. Ricceri & P. V. Arrigoni] (Portulacaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, La Dehesa, mango plantation, storage area, numerous individuals, 01.06.2013, R. Otto 20340 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Barranco de las Nieves, crack of wall, 28.05.2013, R. Otto 20395 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, La Dehesa, small barranco between fruit plantations, planted specimens nearby, 24.09.2013, R. Otto 20669 (pers. herb. RO); Puntallana, Casco Urbano, wasteland, 25.09.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Senecio angulatus L. f. (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Puerto Naos, wasteland between houses, in ruderal vegetation, escape from nearby cultivation, 29.05.2013, R. Otto 20420 (pers. herb. RO); Garafía, La Mata, 1040 m, spreading in roadside of LP-1, 04.09.2013, R. Otto 20763 (pers. herb. RO).

Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, Plaza de San Fernando, public green, many seedlings under bushes and scattered in cracks of sidewalk, 25.05.2013, R. Otto 20233 (pers. herb. RO).

Sisymbrium orientale L. (Brassicaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Garafía, St. Domingo, ruderal vegetation on construction waste, roadside, several plants, 06.05.2012, R. Otto 19125 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Solandra maxima (Sessé & Moc.) P. S. Green (Fig. 22) (Solanaceae).

Figure 22. Solandra maxima, Sta. Cruz de La Palma, overgrows ca. 200 m² of ruderal vegetation, March 2014 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: Sta. Cruz de La Palma, barranco slope near San Telmo on Carretera Timibúcar, roadside, climbing out of overgrown garden, 05.03.2011, R. Otto 17650 (pers. herb. RO); Sta. Cruz de La Palma, crossroads LP-1 and Caserío Miranda, waste ground, overgrows ca. 200 m² of ruderal vegetation (with e.g. Ricinus communis L., Nicotiana glauca Graham and Kleinia neriifolia Haw.), 28.698606º N, 17.761019º W, 127 m, 09.03.2014, R. Otto 20934 (pers. herb. RO).

Solanum bonariense L. (Solanaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, embankment at the edge of parking below Plaza Bujaz, ca. 5 bushes up to 2 m tall in dense ruderal vegetation, 27.09.2012, R. Otto 19779 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR); ibid., only two small shrubs left after partial destruction of the location, 01.10.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Solanum chenopodioides Lam. (= S. gracile Dunal = S. sublobatum Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) (Fig. 23) (Solanaceae).

Figure 23. Solanum chenopodioides, San Isidro, September 2010 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, nearby junction of Carretera de San Isidro and Camino 1a, foot of enclosure wall, bush ca. 1 m tall, 02.09.2010, R. Otto 17314 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR). The very same plant, but partially truncated, also seen 28.09.2012, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

Solanum mauritianum L. (Solanaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Miranda, near Calle Camelias, weed in orchard with Solanum abutiloides Bitter & Lillo, several tall bushes, 26.08.2005, R. Otto 11128 (pers. herb. RO); Barlovento near Cuesta Baja, Barranco de Abreu, embankment, 07.10.2011, R. Otto 18765 (pers. herb. RO).

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Fig. 24) (Bignoniaceae).

Figure 24. Tecoma stans, Las Indias, May 2013 (Photographs: R. Otto).

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Spain, La Palma: Fuencaliente, Las Indias, surroundings of hotels, several shrubs up to 50 cm, gutter and foot of retaining wall, planted nearby, 31.05.2013, R. Otto 20339 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Baja, Los Cancajos, Urbanización Las Salinas 3, wasteland and small tip near housing area, several seedlings and small shrubs, a planted individual in a front garden on the other side of the street, 22.09.2013, R. Otto 20644 (pers. herb. RO).

Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach (Bignoniaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, slope of a small barranco between San Miguel and San Pedro, 23.05.2013, R. Otto 20181 (pers. herb. RO); Breña Alta, near San Isidro, roadside LP-301, escaped on rocky slope, 20.09.2013, R. Otto 20790 (pers. herb. RO).

Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D. R. Hunt (≡ Setcreasea pallida Rose) (Commelinaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Puntallana, near El Granel, roadside LP-1, base of retaining wall, small carpet, 25.09.2013, R. Otto 20701 (pers. herb. RO).

Trifolium suffocatum L. (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Barlovento, Laguna de Barlovento, wasteland and dirt road near entrance of camping site, numerous individuals, 01.05.2012, R. Otto 19015 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Ulmus minor Mill. (Ulmaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Pedro, Camino Barranco de Aguacencio, some wild bushes on slopes of the dry riverbed, 23.05.2013, R. Otto 20182 (pers. herb. RO, dupl. BR).

Veronica persica Poir. (Plantaginaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, Avenida Bajamar, newly arranged border, scattered individuals, perhaps indroduced with grass seed, 19.08.2007, R. Otto 13268 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, wayside, numerous individuals, 07.03.2014, R. Otto 20907 (pers. herb. RO).

Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa (Fabaceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, San Isidro, as weed in sweet potato field, 13.10.2011, R. Otto 18799 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., fallow land, perhaps former oat field, 13.10.2011, R. Otto (pers. obs.); ibid., waste land, in ruderal vegetation, 12.05.2012, R. Otto 19210 (pers. herb. RO).

Xanthium spinosum L. [≡ Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr.] (Asteraceae).

Spain, La Palma: Breña Alta, near San Pedro, Barranco de la Zarcita, wasteland along Camino la Muralla, several individuals, 30.08.2008, R. Otto 14388 (pers. herb. RO); ibid., several seedlings, 03.06.2013, R. Otto (pers. obs.).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTop

R. Faden (Washington, USA) is acknowledged for his precious advice on Commelina latifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich., and D. Guillot Ortiz (Valencia, Spain) and J. López-Pujol (Barcelona, Spain) for their help with the identification of several ornamental species. G. Wagenitz (Göttingen, Germany) and S. Freire (La Plata, Argentina) are thanked for identifying species of Gamochaeta, J. Walter (Vienna, Austria) for the revision of many Portulaca specimens and R. Wißkirchen (Remagen, Germany) for his support with Polygonum and Xanthium. Special thanks go to H. Scholz † (Berlin-Dahlem, Germany) for his continuous help with the identification of and many discussions on several different species of Poaceae. Finally, the first author is much indebted to his wife Herta and his many friends in La Palma; they are thanked for their patience and understanding.

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