Typification of Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. (Compositae, Cichorieae)

NOTAS BREVES

Typification of Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. (Compositae, Cichorieae)

P. P. Ferrer-Gallego1,2 & S. Talavera3

1 Servicio de Vida Silvestre, Centro para la Investigación y Experimentación Forestal de la Generalitat Valenciana (CIEF),
av. Comarques del País Valencià, 114, ES-46930 Quart de Poblet, València, Spain
2 VAERSA, av. de les Corts Valencianes, 20, ES-46015 València, Spain
3 Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Universidad de Sevilla, ES-41012 Sevilla, Spain

Author for correspondence: P. P. Ferrer-Gallego (flora.cief@gva.es)

Editor: J. López-Alvarado

ABSTRACT
Typification of Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. (Compositae, Cichorieae). The typification of the name Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. in Unif. Calif. Public. Bot. 19: 403 (1941) [≡ Hieracium sanctum L., Cent. Pl. II: 30 (1756), basionym] (Compositae, Cichorieae) is discussed. The designation of the corresponding type is based on the consultation of the Linnaeus original material and the literature cited in the respective protologue. Original material conserved in LINN (The Linnaean Herbarium at the Linnean Society of London) is designated as the lectotype.
KEY WORDS: Asteraceae; Hieracium sanctum; lectotypification; Linnaeus; nomenclature.

Tipificación de Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. (Compositae, Cichorieae)

RESUMEN
Tipificación de Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. (Compositae, Cichorieae). Se discute la tipificación del nombre Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. in Unif. Calif. Public. Bot. 19: 403 (1941) [≡ Hieracium sanctum L., Cent. Pl. II: 30 (1756), basiónimo] (Compositae, Cichorieae). La designación del correspondiente tipo está basada en la consulta del material original de Linneo y la bibliografía citada en el respectivo protólogo. El material original conservado en LINN (Herbario de Linneo en la Sociedad Linneana de Londres) es designado como el lectótipo.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Asteraceae; Hieracium sanctum; lectotipificación; Linneo; nomenclatura.

Recibido: 14/07/2014 / Aceptado: 15/10/2014 / Publicado on line: 09/01/2017

Cómo citar este artículo / Citation: Ferrer-Gallego, P. P. & Talavera, S. 2016. Typification of Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. (Compositae, Cichorieae). Collectanea Botanica 35: e003. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2016.v35.003

Copyright: © 2016 Institut Botànic de Barcelona (CSIC). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) Spain 3.0.

CONTENIDOS

ABSTRACT
RESUMEN
INTRODUCTION
TYPIFICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION Top

The genus Crepis L. (Compositae, Cichorieae) comprises over 200 species (Bremer, 1994Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. Timber Press, Portland.) and is one the largest genera of the Crepidinae and even of the Cichorieae. Species of the genus are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Some species also occur in tropical east Africa, south Africa and west Africa (Sell, 1976Sell, P. D. 1976. Crepis L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A. et al. (Eds.), Flora Europaea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 344–357.; Mabberley, 2008Mabberley, D. J. 2008. Mabberley’s plant-book (3th ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.). The origin of Crepis is thought to be in the Altai-Tian Shan region in Central Asia (Babcock, 1947Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis I. The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution and evolution of Crepis (University of California Publications in Botany, 21). University of California Press, Berkeley.). From there, the genus spread north-eastwards into North America, south-westwards into southern Europe and north-eastern Europe (Babcock, 1947Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis I. The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution and evolution of Crepis (University of California Publications in Botany, 21). University of California Press, Berkeley.; Bogler, 2006Bogler, D. J. 2006. Crepis L. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.), Flora of North America 19. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford: 222–239.). The genus presently has its highest species diversity in the circum-Mediterraean area. As was indicated by Enke (2009Enke, N. 2009. Contributions towards a revised infrageneric classification of Crepis (Cichorieae, Compositae). Willdenowia 39: 229–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.3372/wi.39.39202), the genus Crepis is paraphyletic and comprises three well supported clades. One accommodates Crepis s. str. but a second clade includes, among others, morphologically rather distinct genera like Lapsana L. and Rhagadiolus Tourn. ex Scop. According to Enke (2009Enke, N. 2009. Contributions towards a revised infrageneric classification of Crepis (Cichorieae, Compositae). Willdenowia 39: 229–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.3372/wi.39.39202), both should, at least for the time being, be maintained in their current generic circumscription. 

Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. is a fruit-heteromorphic species, achene morphology varies within every fruit head. Central achenes are light and wind-dispersed, whereas peripheral achenes are heavier and fall close to the mother plant (Imbert et al., 1997Imbert, E., Escarré, J. & Lepart, J. 1997. Seed heteromorphism in Crepis sancta (Asteraceae): performance of two morphs in different environments. Oikos 79: 325–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3546016, 1999Imbert, E., Escarré, J. & Lepart, J. 1999. Local adaptation and non-genetic maternal effects among three populations of Crepis sancta (Asteraceae). Ecoscience 6: 223–229.). According to Euro+Med (2006Euro+Med 2006. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved 10 October 2013, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/ ), C. sancta occurs in Europe, western Asia and Egypt. This species has been the subject of many studies regarding its ecology, taxonomy and genetics. However, from the standpoint of nomenclature, the name Crepis sancta is not typified [≡ Hieracium sanctum L., basionym] (Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out the chaos. Linnaean plant names and their types. The Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, London.: 574). The aim of this paper is to lectotypify the name Crepis sancta; the designation of the corresponding type is based on the consultation of the Linnaeus original material of Hieracium sanctum and the literature cited in the respective protologue.

TYPIFICATIONTop

Linnaeus’s protologue (1756Linnaeus, C. 1756. Centuria II. Plantarum [dissertation of E. Torner]. Uppsala, Sweden.) consisted of a nomen specificum legitimumHIERACIUM (sanctum) foliis lyratis obtusis dentatis, scapo nudo multifloro”, and the natal patria and collector “Habitat in Palaestina. Hasselquist.”, followed by a detailed morphological description after the locus classicus “Radix tenuis, fibrosa. folia radicalia, plura, obovata, lyrata, dentata, obtusa, petiolata, pubescentia, Scapus foliis duplo altior, subpubescens, apice gerens Flores 5, s. 7, parvos, luteos, Pedunculis villosis, Calycibus impricatis, acutis”.

Lamond (1975Lamond, J. M. 1975. Crepis L. In: Davis, P. H. (Ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh: 814–841.: 834) treated the herbarium sheet Herb. Linn. No. 954.19 (LINN) (image available at: http://linnean-online.org/8837/) as the type of Crepis sancta, concretely was indicated: Type: Palestine, Hasselquist? (Hb. Linn. No. 954/19, photo!). However, the sheet lacks any annotation by Linnaeus, and is not original material for the name. The Hasselquist material in Linnaeus’s own herbarium in LINN often carries a symbol “Ø”, written by Linnaeus, which has been interpreted to be geographical, denoting the Near East (Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out the chaos. Linnaean plant names and their types. The Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, London.: 209). The sheet Herb. Linn. No. 954.19 (LINN) lacks this symbol. This sheet contains only one plant with leaves and inflorescences, and the only annotation is “Hieracium caule nudo scabro” but not written by Linnaeus. Therefore, this specimen was not indicated by Jarvis (2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out the chaos. Linnaean plant names and their types. The Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, London.: 574) as Linnaeus’s original material of the name Hieracium sanctum.

A specimen relevant to Hieracium sanctum is preserved in the Linnaean herbaria: Herb. Linn. No. 954.18 (LINN) (image available at: http://linnean-online.org/8827/). This herbarium sheet came from the collection History of Hasselquist. In July of 1755, Linnaeus received a collection of plants from Fredrik Hasselquist in the eastern Mediterranean (Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out the chaos. Linnaean plant names and their types. The Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, London.: 77), so there is no doubt that this material was used by Linnaeus to describe Hieracium sanctum, as Linnaeus indicated in the protologue (1756Linnaeus, C. 1756. Centuria II. Plantarum [dissertation of E. Torner]. Uppsala, Sweden.: 30). This sheet is annotated with the Linnaeus’s symbol “Ø” at the base of the plant placed in the central part of the sheet. This specimen (clearly the same gathering) contains three plants and leaves, but only two plants with inflorescences, in the herbarium sheet is annotated “sanctum” by Linnaeus. This material is in good condition and constitutes the best candidate to be considered as the lectotype.

On the other hand, in the Hasselquist Herbarium at UPS there is an herbarium sheet (Herb. Hasselquist 675, UPS) (Fig. 1) with Linnaeus’s original material (see Jarvis 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out the chaos. Linnaean plant names and their types. The Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, London.: 209). This sheet bears a plant that corresponds to Crepis sancta, with inflorescences and leaves. We have been unable to trace any further original material in any other Linnaean and Linnaean-linked herbaria.

Although these two sheets are identifiable as Linnaeus’s Crepis sancta, we prefer to designate the herbarium sheet Herb. Linn. No. 954.18 (LINN) as lectotype of this name, because this sheet is the most complete and informative, and it is in a good state of preservation. This material agrees with the traditional and current usage of the Linnaean name Hieracium sanctum.

Crepis sancta (L.) Babc. in Unif. Calif. Public. Bot. 19: 403 (1941).
≡ Hieracium sanctum L., Cent. Pl. II: 30 (1756) [basionym].
Ind. loc.: “Habitat in Palaestina. Hasselquist”.
Lectotype (designated here): Herb. Linn. No. 954.18 (LINN) (image available at: http://linnean-online.org/8827/).

Figure 1. Linnaeus’s original material of Crepis sancta (L.) Babc., Herb. Hasselquist 675, UPS. © Herbarium UPS, reproduced with permission.

Imagen

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTop

Authors thank Dr. M. Hjertson (Museum of Evolution, Botany Section Uppsala University) for his help in the study of the Hasselquist Herbarium (UPS). Two anonymous referees and the handling editor, made constructive criticism that improved the text. This work is part of the PhD thesis of P. P. Ferrer-Gallego.

REFERENCESTop

1. Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis I. The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution and evolution of Crepis (University of California Publications in Botany, 21). University of California Press, Berkeley.
2. Bogler, D. J. 2006. Crepis L. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico 19. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford: 222–239.
3. Bremer, K. 1994. Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. Timber Press, Portland.
4. Enke, N. 2009. Contributions towards a revised infrageneric classification of Crepis (Cichorieae, Compositae). Willdenowia 39: 229–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.3372/wi.39.39202
5. Euro+Med 2006. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved 10 October 2013, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/
6. Imbert, E., Escarré, J. & Lepart, J. 1997. Seed heteromorphism in Crepis sancta (Asteraceae): performance of two morphs in different environments. Oikos 79: 325–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3546016
7. Imbert, E., Escarré, J. & Lepart, J. 1999. Local adaptation and non-genetic maternal effects among three populations of Crepis sancta (Asteraceae). Ecoscience 6: 223–229.
8. Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out the chaos. Linnaean plant names and their types. The Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, London.
9. Lamond, J. M. 1975. Crepis L. In: Davis, P. H. (Ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh: 814–841.
10. Linnaeus, C. 1756. Centuria II. Plantarum [dissertation of E. Torner]. Uppsala, Sweden.
11. Mabberley, D. J. 2008. Mabberley’s plant-book (3th ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
12. Sell, P. D. 1976. Crepis L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A. et al. (Eds.), Flora Europaea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 344–357.


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