Notes about 'Tanacetum corymbosum s. l.' (Asteraceae)

ARTÍCULO

Notes about Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. (Asteraceae)

D. IAMONICO

Laboratory of Phytogeography and Applied Geobotany, Section Environment and Landscape, Department PDTA, Sapienza University of Rome, via Flaminia 70, I-00196 Rome, Italy.

 

ORCID iD. D. IAMONICO: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5491-7568

 

E-mail: d.iamonico@yahoo.it

 

Editor: L. Sáez

 

Notes about Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. (Asteraceae)

ABSTRACT
Notes about Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. (Asteraceae).— I here present a study concerning nomenclatural and taxonomical notes on the names Chrysanthemum italicum L., C. achilleae L., C. tanacetifolium Pourr., Pyrethrum cinereum Griseb., P. clusii Fisch. ex Rchb., P. clusii Tausch, P. daucifolium Pers., and P. tenuifolium Ten., all belonging to the critical group of Tanacetum corymbosum. A new infraspecific classification of Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. s. l. is proposed recognizing five subspecies on the basis of a morphological study of type material and other specimens. A diagnosic key of the recognized taxa is provided. A nomenclatural change, i.e. T. corymbosum subsp. daucifolium (Pers.) Iamonico comb. nov., is proposed. Lectotypes are designated for the names Chrysanthemum cinereum (specimen preserved at GOET), Chrysanthemum achilleae (Micheli’s illustration), Chrysanthemum italicum (at LINN), Pyrethrum clusii by Rechenbach (Clusius’ image), Pyrethrum tenuifolium (at G) and Pyrethrum clusii by Tausch (Clusius’ image). A neotype was designated for Chrysanthemum tanacetifolium (at P).
KEY WORDS: Asteraceae; Chrysanthemum; nomenclature; Pyrethrum; taxonomy; typification.

Notas sobre Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. (Asteraceae)

RESUMEN
Notas sobre Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. (Asteraceae).— Se presenta un estudio nomenclatural y taxonómico sobre Chrysanthemum italicum L., C. achilleae L., C. tanacetifolium Pourr., Pyrethrum cinereum Griseb., P. clusii Fisch. ex Rchb., P. clusii Tausch, P. daucifolium Pers. y P. tenuifolium Ten., táxones que pertenecen al grupo crítico de Tanacetum corymbosum. Se propone una nueva clasificación infraespecífica de Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. s. l. y se reconocen cinco subespecies sobre la base de un estudio morfológico del material tipo y otros especímenes. Se proporciona una clave de diagnóstico de los táxones estudiados. Se propone también un cambio nomenclatural, i.e. Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. daucifolium (Pers.) Iamonico comb. nov. Se designan lectotipos para los nombres Chrysanthemum cinereum (espécimen conservado en GOET), Chrysanthemum achilleae (imagen de Micheli), Chrysanthemum italicum (en LINN), Pyrethrum clusii de Rechenbach (ilustración de Clusius), Pyrethrum tenuifolium (en G) y Pyrethrum clusii de Tausch (imagen de Clusius). Se designa un neotipo para Chrysanthemum tanacetifolium (en P).
PALABRAS CLAVE: Asteraceae; Chrysanthemum; nomenclatura; Pyrethrum; taxonomía; tipificación.

Recibido: 10/01/2018 / Aceptado: 08/02/2018 / Publicado on line: 28/12/2018

Cómo citar este artículo / Citation: Iamonico, D. 2018. Notes about Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. (Asteraceae). Collectanea Botanica 37: e013. https://doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2018.v37.013

Copyright: © 2018 CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.

CONTENIDOS

ABSTRACT
RESUMEN
INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
BACKGROUND
NOMENCLATURAL AND TAXONOMIC REMARKS
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT AND TYPIFICATION OF THE NAMES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTES
REFERENCESS

INTRODUCTIONTop

Tanacetum L. (Anthemideae Cass., Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl) is a genus of approximately 160 species of perennial herbs and shrubs distributed in the Mediterranean region, Central, and south-western Asia, and parts of North America (see e.g. Oberprieler et al., 2009Oberprieler, C., Himmelreich, S., Kallersjo, M., Vallès, J. & Vogt, R. 2009. Anthemideae. In: Funk, V. A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T. F. & Bayer, R. J. (Eds.), Systematics, evolution and biogeography of the Compositae. IAPT, Vienna: 631–666.; Sonboli et al., 2012Sonboli, A., Stroka, K., Osaloo, S. K. & Oberprieler, C. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of Tanacetum L. (Compositae, Anthemideae) inferred from nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnH–psbA sequence variation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 298: 431–444.).

Linnaeus published 22 names under Chrysanthemum L. (Linnaeus, 1753Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum 12. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm., 1759Linnaeus, C. 1759. Amoenitates Academicae 4. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae., 1763Linnaeus, C. 1763. Species plantarum 1 (2nd ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm., 1767bLinnaeus, C. 1767b. Systema naturae 2 (12th ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.). According to Jarvis (2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out of chaos: Linnaean plant names and their types. Linnean Society of London and The Natural History Museum, London.) 18 out of the 22 Linnaean names are already typified. Among the remaining 4 untypified names, two (Chrysanthemum italicum L., and C. achilleae L.) are applied to taxa belonging to the Tanacetum corymbosum group (see e.g. Heywood, 1976aHeywood, V. H. 1976a. Tanacetum L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (Eds.), Flora Europea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne: 169–171.; Greuter, 2006–2009Greuter, W. 2006–2009. Compositae (pro parte majore). In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (Eds.), Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=7001927&PTRefFk=7000000). Other taxa linked to this group (Pyrethrum cinereum Griseb., P. clusii Fisch. ex Rchb., P. daucifolium Pers., P. tenuifolium Ten.) need a nomenclatural revision which is here presented as part of the studies on Linnaean names and the cooperation in the treatment of the Asteraceae for the new edition of the Flora of Italy (see e.g. Del Guacchio & Iamonico 2015Del Guacchio, E. & Iamonico, D. 2015. Typifications of the Linnaean names Carduus eriophorus, Carduus eriophorus var. spurius, and Cnicus ferox (Asteraceae). Phytotaxa 238: 196–200. http://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.238.2.8; Iamonico, 2013Iamonico, D. 2013. Typification of the Linnaean name Hypochaeris maculata (Asteraceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 222–224. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2012.01612.x, 2015Iamonico, D. 2015. Senecio pterophorus is an heterotypic synonym of S. grisebachii: nomenclatural study of the names, morphological notes, and chorology. Plant Biosystems 149: 728–736. http://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2015.1057262; Iamonico & Hjertson, 2015Iamonico, D. & Hjertson, M. 2015. Lectotypification of Linnaean names in Tussilago (Asteraceae). Botanica Serbica 39: 45–48.; Iamonico & Managlia, 2014Iamonico, D. & Managlia, A. 2014. Lectotypification of the Bertoloni’s names in the genus Senecio L. (Asteraceae). Plant Biosystems 149: 48–53. http://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2012.753956; Iamonico & Peruzzi, 2016Iamonico, D. & Peruzzi, L. 2016. Typification of Centaurea aspera, C. nudicaulis and C. uniflora (Asteraceae). Taxon 65: 163–165. http://doi.org/10.12705/651; Iamonico et al., 2014Iamonico, D., McKenzie, R. J. & Barker, N. P. 2014. (2281) Proposal to reject the name Arnica coronopifolia (Asteraceae). Taxon 63: 436–437. http://doi.org/10.12705/632.29).

MATERIALS AND METHODSTop

The nomenclatural and taxonomical study, which is here presented, was carried out by an extensive analysis of literature (protologues included), personal field investigations, and the examination of the specimens (see Appendix 1) kept in the Herbaria B, G, GOET, GZU, JE, K, L, LINN, P, PH, RO, W and WU (acronyms according to Thiers, 2018–Thiers, B. 2018–. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. The New York Botanical Garden, New York. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/.).

The articles cited through the text follow the Shenzen Code (Turland et al. 2018Turland, N. J., Wiersema, J. H., Barrie, F. R et al. (Eds.) 2018: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code). (Regnum Vegetabile 159). Koeltz Botanical Books, Glashütten. https://doi.org/10.12705/Code.2018) which is further referred to as ICN (International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants).

BACKGROUNDTop

Chrysanthemum achilleae L.

Chrysanthemum achilleae was published by Linnaeus (1767bLinnaeus, C. 1767b. Systema naturae 2 (12th ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 562) through a short diagnosis and a description. A Micheli’s illustration (Micheli, 1729Micheli, P. A. 1729. Nova plantarum genera. Typis Bernardi Paperini, Florentiae.: Tab. 29) was cited and it is original material for the name. No specimens useful for the typification purposes were traced (see also Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out of chaos: Linnaean plant names and their types. Linnean Society of London and The Natural History Museum, London.), so this illustration is designated in this work as the lectotype of the name Chrysanthemum achilleae. I here recognize this taxon at subspecies rank of Tanacetum corymbosum, as already proposed by Greuter (in Greuter et al., 2003Greuter, W., Oberprieler, C. & Vogt, R. 2003. The Euro+Med treatment of Anthemideae (Compositae) – generic concepts and required new names. Willdenowia 33: 37–43. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.33.33102: 43) (see also the discussion of C. achilleae/C. italicum in the section “Nomenclatural and taxonomic remarks”).

Chrysanthemum italicum L.

Linnaeus’ protologue of Chrysanthemum italicum (Linnaeus 1767aLinnaeus, C. 1767a. Mantissa plantarum. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 116[1]) consists of a short diagnosis (“CHRYSANTHEMUM foliis bipinnatis serratis, florum radiis disci longitudine, caule procumbente”), and one synonym cited from Micheli (1729Micheli, P. A. 1729. Nova plantarum genera. Typis Bernardi Paperini, Florentiae.: 34) who provided an illustration[2] (“Tab. 29”) which is part of original material; the collector (“Arduini”), and the provenance (“Habitat in Italia”) were also provided; Linnaeus also highlighted a morphological similarity with C. millefoliatum (Linnaeus, 1767bLinnaeus, C. 1767b. Systema naturae 2 (12th ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 563, nom. superfl.[3], Arts. 52.1. and 52.2 of the ICN). There is one sheet at LINN (no. 1012.21) bearing parts of a probably same plant whose features match the diagnosis, and the Linnaean annotation “chrysanth[emum] italicum Ard[uino]”. The plant was sent from P. Arduino to C. Linnaeus, and it can be considered an ante-1767 addition to the collection and original material for the name (Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out of chaos: Linnaean plant names and their types. Linnean Society of London and The Natural History Museum, London.). I have not been able to locate any further original material in any other Linnaean or Linnaean-linked herbaria (see also Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out of chaos: Linnaean plant names and their types. Linnean Society of London and The Natural History Museum, London.). Among the elements selected (specimen from LINN, and illustration by Micheli) I here designate the first one as the lectotype of the name Chrysanthemum italicum over the illustration because of its potential ability to provide a larger number of additional characters (micro-morphological, chemical, molecular, etc.) that cannot be examined by images (Jarvis, 2007Jarvis, C. E. 2007. Order out of chaos: Linnaean plant names and their types. Linnean Society of London and The Natural History Museum, London.: 21–22).

Chrysanthemum italicum is considered as a heterotypic synonym of C. achilleae, as is discussed in the section “Nomenclatural and taxonomic remarks”.

Chrysanthemum tanacetifolium Pourr.

Pourret (1788Pourret, M. 1788. Extrait de la Chloris Narbonensis, renfermée dans un voyage fait depuis Narbonne jusqu’au Montserrat par les Pyrénées. Histoire et Mémoires de l’Academie Royale des Sciences, Inscriptions et Belles Lettres de Toulouse 3: 297–334.: 311) published Chrysanthemum tanacetifolium thorugh a short diagnosis (“foliis bipinnatis, pinnis inciso-serratis, caule ramoso pedunculis axillaribus longis multifloris”) and provided some localities (“Aux environs de Narbonne, à Cascastel, l’Espinassiere, & c.”). I have not been able to trace specimens which are part of the original material. As a consequence, on the basis of the Art. 9.8 of the ICN, a neotypification is required. Unfortunately, no specimen collected by Pourret was found. I select a specimen (P 00731963) collected at Montpellier, which displays morphological characteristics matching the Pourret’s diagnosis. The P00731963 is designated in this work as the neotype of the name Chrysanthemum tanacetifolium. Based on the morphology of this specimen (especially concerning the leaf segments (2nd order) which are ovate-lanceolate), and according to the current concept in Tanacetum (see e.g. Heywood, 1976aHeywood, V. H. 1976a. Tanacetum L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (Eds.), Flora Europea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne: 169–171.: 170–171), the name C. tanacetifolium is to be considered as heterotypic synonym of Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. corymbosum.

Pyrethrum cinereum Griseb.

Grisebach (1844Grisebach, A. 1844. Spicilegium florae rumelicae et bithynicae exhibens synopsin plantarum quas in aest. 1839 legit 2. Fridericum Vieweg et filium, Brunsvigae.: 203) provided a detailed diagnosis, the provenance (“In Macedonia et Bithynia[…] Pr. Palanka distr. Kostendil […] (Friedr.) [= E. Friedrichsthal]pr. Bolu (Pest.) [= F. Pestalozza]”), and the habitat (“in pascuis lapidosis […] alt. 2000ʹ–3000ʹ”) in the protologue of Pyrethrum cinereum. There are two specimens at GOET (where the most of the Grisebach specimens are preserved—see Stafleu and Cowan, 1976Stafleu, F. A. & Cowan, R. S. 1976. Taxonomic literature 1 (2nd ed.). Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema, Utrecht.: 1007), GOET 002103 and GOET 002109 bearing plants collected respectively by E. Friedrichsthal at Palanka (Macedonia), and F. Pestalozza at Bolu (Turkey). A third specimen is kept at W (W 0051161) and bears a plant collected by E. Friedrichsthal at Palanka. According to the Art. 9.6 of the ICN, these three specimens (two at GOET, and one at W) are syntypes. Some considerations are to be made on these three specimens:

  1. both E. Friedrichsthal and F. Pestalozza were explicity reported by Grisebach (1844Grisebach, A. 1844. Spicilegium florae rumelicae et bithynicae exhibens synopsin plantarum quas in aest. 1839 legit 2. Fridericum Vieweg et filium, Brunsvigae.) in the title page of his Spicilegium as collaborators of the work;
  2. the localities indicated in the labels perfectly match the protologue;
  3. the specimen GOET 002103 bears the original annotation “Pyrethrum cinereum m. [mihi] 454 / Pyrethrumniveum Lag. / Diff. foliis bipinna / tipartitis lobis obl. [oblongi] / in pascuis lapidosis / pr. Palanka” which refers to the comparison provided in the protologue by Grisebach (1844Grisebach, A. 1844. Spicilegium florae rumelicae et bithynicae exhibens synopsin plantarum quas in aest. 1839 legit 2. Fridericum Vieweg et filium, Brunsvigae.: 203).

All thing stated, I here consider these three specimens as part of the original material, and designate that at GOET 002103 (it appears to be better preserved) as the lectotype of the name Pyrethrum cinereum. I here recognize this taxon at subspecies rank of Tanacetum corymbosum, as already proposed by Davis (1975Davis, P. H. (Ed.) 1975. Flora of Turkey 5. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.: 262).

Pyrethrum clusii Fisch. ex Rchb.

Reichenbach (1831Reichenbach, L. 1831. Flora germanica excursoria. Carolum Cnobloch, Lipsiae.: 231–232) named this species in honour of C. A. Clusius who described in his Rariorum Plantarum Historia (Clusius, 1601Clusius, C. A. 1601. Rariorum Plantarum Historia 3. Ex officina Plantiniana, Aenturpiae.: 338) a “Tanacetum inodorum I”. This polynomial was reported by Reichenbach (1831Reichenbach, L. 1831. Flora germanica excursoria. Carolum Cnobloch, Lipsiae.: 232) as synonym of P. clusii. The illustration provided by Clusius (1601Clusius, C. A. 1601. Rariorum Plantarum Historia 3. Ex officina Plantiniana, Aenturpiae.) is part of the original material and is designated in this work as the lectotype of the name Pyrethrum clusii.

According to the current concept in Tanacetum (see e.g. Heywood, 1976aHeywood, V. H. 1976a. Tanacetum L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (Eds.), Flora Europea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne: 169–171.: 170–171), and on the basis of the lectotype of P. clusii, this name seems to be referred to Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. subcorymbosum. However, since the typification of Chrysanthemum subcorymbosum Schur (basionym of T. corymbosum subsp. subcorymbosum) was not possible to achieve (see Note 6 in “Taxonomic treatment”), I here considered P. clusii as doubt synonym of T. corymbosum subsp. subcorymbosum. In anycase, although P. clusii would have nomenclatural priority (1831 vs. 1859), the combination at subspecies rank (here accepted as better taxonomic rank) was published earlier for C. subcorymbosum (1936 vs. 1976—see the section “Taxonomic treatment”). As a consequence the name to be used at subspecies rank would be however T. corymbosum subsp. subcorymbosum (Schur) Szafer & Pawłowski.

The Reichenbach’s name is to be considered as a later homonym of Pyrethrum clusii Tausch (see the discussion below), and so illegitimate according to Art. 53.1 of the ICN. Dostál (1950Dostál, J. 1950. Květena ČSR a ilustrovaný klíč k určení všech cevnatých rostlin, na území Československa planě rostoucích nebo běžně pěstovaných. Přírodověd nakl, Praha.: 1603) and Heywood (1976bHeywood, V. H. 1976b. Notulae Systematicae ad Floram Europaeam spectantes 19. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 71: 235–274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1975.tb01204.x: 272) proposed new combinations of the Reichenbach’s name at subspecies rank under Chrysanthemum and Tanacetum, respectively. On the basis of the Art. 58.1 (and see the Ex. 2) “The final epithet in an illegitimate name may be re-used in a different name, at either the same or a different rank; or an illegitimate generic name may be re-used as the epithet in the name of a subdivision of a genus. The resulting name is then treated either as a replacement name with the same type as the illegitimate name”. As a consequence, the Dostál’s and Heywood’s combinations are legitimate and to be considered as replaced names of Pyrenthrum clusii.

Pyrethrum clusii Tausch

Tausch (1821Tausch, I. F. 1821. Index plantarum, quae in horto excellentissimi Comitis Josephi Malabaila de Canal coluntur. Prague.: 8, 12) published Pyrethrum clusii citing “Huc spectat T. [Tanacetum inodorum] inodorum II. Clus. hist. I. 338.” (which refers to Clusius, 1601Clusius, C. A. 1601. Rariorum Plantarum Historia 3. Ex officina Plantiniana, Aenturpiae.: 338) as synonym. The Tausch’s name is lectotypified in this work using the Clusius’s illustration “Tanacetum inodorum II”. The Clusius’s illustration displays morphological characters matching the current concept [see e.g. Heywood (1976aHeywood, V. H. 1976a. Tanacetum L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (Eds.), Flora Europea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne: 169–171.: 170–171)] of Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. corymbosum (leaf blades glabrous and 1-pinnatipartite, and involucral bracts of capitula without a broad blackish-brown margin).

Pyrethrum tenuifolium Ten.

Tenore (1815Tenore, M. 1815. Synopsis novarum plantarum, quae in Prodromo Florae Neapolitane, Anno 1811–13 edito, describuntur. In: Tenore, M. (Ed.), Ad catalogum plantarum Horti Regi Neapolitani Anno 1813 editum, appendix prima. Ex Typographia Diarii Amuliana, Neapoli.: 50) described Pyrethrum teniufolium through just a diagnosis (any locality or habitat were cited). The same author published a more complete treatment of the species in the 2nd volume of Flora Napolitana (Tenore, 1820Tenore, M. 1820. Flora Napoletana 2. Stamperia francese, Napoli.: 236) where he provided a detailed description, some localities (“…monti di Abruzzo, alla Majella, al Gran sasso…”), an illustration (“Tav. LXXX”, image available at http://www.ortobotaniconapoli.it/paginadimenu.htm), and a comparison with the similar P. corymbosum. I traced three specimens at K (K 000928497, image available at http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000928497) and G (G 00450830, and G 00450834, images available at http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/chg/adetail.php?id=317570&base=img&lang=en). The K 000928497 specimen bears a plant collected by M. Tenore in May 1830 in the locality “Majella M.te de Fiori”, and (date of collection post-1815) cannot be considered as part of the original material. The G00450830 specimen was collected “In Majella”, but the collection date is lacking and I cannot be sure it was an atne-1815 addition to the collection, so I avoid this specimen for he lectotypification purpose. On the contrary, the G 00450834 specimen was collected in 1814, as indicated in the original label. Moreover it was reported “nob.” [nobis]. The morphological characteristics of the plant beared in the G 00450834 specimen matches both the diagnosis by Tenore (1815Tenore, M. 1815. Synopsis novarum plantarum, quae in Prodromo Florae Neapolitane, Anno 1811–13 edito, describuntur. In: Tenore, M. (Ed.), Ad catalogum plantarum Horti Regi Neapolitani Anno 1813 editum, appendix prima. Ex Typographia Diarii Amuliana, Neapoli.: L), and the later description by Tenore (1820Tenore, M. 1820. Flora Napoletana 2. Stamperia francese, Napoli.: 236). I designate in this work the specimen G 00450834 as the lectotype of the name Pyrenthrum tenuifolium. The morphology of the lectotype [leaf blades 2-pinnatipartite with segments (2nd order) ovate-lanceolate] allows to synonymized the Tenore’s name with Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. achilleae.

The Tenore’s name is to be considered as a later homonym of Pyrethrum tenuifolium Willd., and so illegitimate according to the Art. 53.1 of the ICN.

NOMENCLATURAL AND TAXONOMIC REMARKSTop

About 20 years later the publication of the original descriptions of Chrysanthemum achilleae and C. italicum, Gilibert (1785Gilibert, J. E. 1785. Systema Plantarum Europae 4. Piestre and Delamollierb, Coloniae-Allobrogum.: 399, 401) maintained these taxa as distinct species (the first one placed under the group named “Leucanthema”, the other species placed under “Chrysanthema”), although he pointed out (a note under C. italicum): “Synonymon Micheli ad Ch. achilleae jam adducitur; forsan Ch. achilleae & italicum una eademque planta bis posita”. Few other authors listed both the Linnaean names. Forsyth (1794Forsyth, W. 1794. A botanical nomenclator. Cadell and P. Elmsly, London.) accepted to list separately C. italicum, and C. achilleae. Candolle (1838Candolle, A. P. de (Ed.) 1838. Prodromus Sytematis Regni Vegetabilis 6. Treuttel et Würtz, Parisiis.: 67) included C. italicum in the group of “Species non satis notae”, stating “C. [Chrysanthemum] italicum…Species onminò obscura…affinis Pyr. [Pyrethrum] millefoliatus, sed erectior et ligulae albae”, while C. achilleae was reported as the basionym of Pyrethrum achilleae (L.) DC. (new proposed combination in Candolle’s Prodromus). Arcangeli (1882Arcangeli, G. 1882. Compendio della flora italiana. Ermanno Loescher, Torino.: 353) recognized the genus Pyrethrum according to Candolle (1838Candolle, A. P. de (Ed.) 1838. Prodromus Sytematis Regni Vegetabilis 6. Treuttel et Würtz, Parisiis.), accepting P. achilleae (L.) DC. as a separate species. Nyman (1879Nyman, C. F. 1879. Conspectus florae europaeae. Typis Officinae Bohlinianae, Örebro Sueciae.: 372) proposed the new combination P. corymbosum subsp. achilleae (L.) Nyman. Fiori (in Fiori & Béguinot, 1903Fiori, A. & Béguinot, A. 1903. Flora Analitica d’Italia 3. Tipografia del Seminario, Padova.: 244) treated C. achilleae at variety rank of C. corymbosum L. on the basis of the leaf blades, 2-pennatifid vs. pennatifid in the nominal variety [the latter taxon was invalidly named “typicum” by Fiori (in Fiori & Béguinot, 1903Fiori, A. & Béguinot, A. 1903. Flora Analitica d’Italia 3. Tipografia del Seminario, Padova.: 243)]; these authors listed C. italicum as doubtful synonym of C. corymbosum var. achilleae (L.) Fiori. Recent citations of C. achilleae are rare, while C. italicum was sometimes listed as good species especially by the Italian authors who had not cited C. achilleae (e.g. Allioni, 1785Allioni, C. 1785. Flora Pedemontana 1. Ioannes Michael Briolus, Augustae Taurinorum.: 191; Tenore, 1815Tenore, M. 1815. Synopsis novarum plantarum, quae in Prodromo Florae Neapolitane, Anno 1811–13 edito, describuntur. In: Tenore, M. (Ed.), Ad catalogum plantarum Horti Regi Neapolitani Anno 1813 editum, appendix prima. Ex Typographia Diarii Amuliana, Neapoli.: 23). Greuter (in Greuter et al., 2003Greuter, W., Oberprieler, C. & Vogt, R. 2003. The Euro+Med treatment of Anthemideae (Compositae) – generic concepts and required new names. Willdenowia 33: 37–43. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.33.33102: 43) recently proposed the new combination Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. achilleae (L.) Greuter, although in his Asteraceae treatment for the Euro+Med PlantBase, the same author (Greuter, 2006–2009Greuter, W. 2006–2009. Compositae (pro parte majore). In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (Eds.), Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=7001927&PTRefFk=7000000; Greuter & Raab-Straube, 2008Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (Eds.) 2008. Med-Checklist. A critical inventory of vascular plants on the circum-mediterranean countries 2. Luxograph, Palermo.) preliminarly accepted this name.

Chrysanthemum corymbosum is currently recognized under the genus Tanacetum L., as T. corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip., a variable species including four subspecies (see e.g. Greuter, 2006–2009Greuter, W. 2006–2009. Compositae (pro parte majore). In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (Eds.), Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=7001927&PTRefFk=7000000): subsp. corymbosum, subsp. achilleae, subsp. cinereum (Griseb.) Grierson, and subsp. subcorymbosum (Schur) Pawl. The type of C. corymbosum s. str. (≡ C. corymbiferum) [lectotype (LINN, Herb. Linn. No. 1012.13) designated by Humphries in Jarvis & Turland (1998Jarvis, C. E. & Turland, N. (Eds.) 1998. Typification of Linnaean specific and varietal names in the Compositae (Asteraceae). Taxon 47: 347–370. https://doi.org/10.2307/1223764: 358); image available at http://linnean-online.org/10439/)] shows a plant with leaves pinnatipartite, the segments having margins toothed or incised. On the whole, the morphological configuration of C. corymbosum subsp. corymbosum [both considering the lectotype, and the current concept of the species (see e.g. Heywood 1976aHeywood, V. H. 1976a. Tanacetum L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (Eds.), Flora Europea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne: 169–171.: 170–171)] does not match those of C. achilleae which type show leaves clearly 2-pinnatipartite. C. achilleae cannot be associated neither with the subsp. cinereum, nor with the subsp. subcorymbosum that are characterized in having pinnatipartite leaves. The Micheli’s illustration (lectotype of C. achilleae) shows the segments of 1st order about two times longer than wide and those of the 2nd order ovate with margins mainly toothed, while the specimen Herb. Linn No. 1012.21 at LINN (lectotype of C. italicum; image available at: http://linnean-online.org/10447/) is a plant with segments (1st order) 2.5–3.0 times longer than wide, and segments (2nd order) lanceolate incised to laciniate. On the basis of the lectotypes of C. achilleae, and C. italicum, these two names appear to be referred to different taxa. However, the forms with leaves 2-pinnatipartite have segments (2st order) which margins configuration vary continuously from toothed to deeply incised (pers. observ.). The type of C. achilleae and C. italicum seems to represent the limits of the range concerning the character of the margin of the leaves segments (2st order). I here propose to treat the names Chrysanthemum italicum and C. achilleae as heterotypic synonyms. Since both names were published in the same date (15–31 october 1767 according to Stafleu & Cowan (1981Stafleu, F. A. & Cowan, R. S. 1981. Taxonomic literature 3 (2nd ed.). Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema, Utrecht.: 107), the Art. 11.4 of the ICN cannot be applied, and I am obliged to consider Art. 11.5 instead. Arcangeli (1882Arcangeli, G. 1882. Compendio della flora italiana. Ermanno Loescher, Torino.: 353) was the first author who united both names, choosing Chrysanthemum achilleae (sub Pyrethrum achilleae) which deserves priority.

Greuter (2006–2009Greuter, W. 2006–2009. Compositae (pro parte majore). In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (Eds.), Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=7001927&PTRefFk=7000000) synonymized C. daucifolium Pers. and Pyrethrum tenuifolium Willd. with T. corymbosum subsp. achilleae. Podlech (1988Podlech, D. von 1988. Beiträge zur Kenntnis altweltlicher Anthemideae (Compositae) I. Was ist Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.? Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 27: 69–71. ) widely discussed the identity of C. daucifolium, listed P. tenuifolium as synonym, and proposed the new combination T. corymbosum var. tenuifolium (Willd.) Podlech[4]. The name Chrysanthemum daucifolium was correctly lectotypified by Podlech (l. c.) on a specimen preserved at L (no. 900.227-31). Concerning the Willdenow’s name, Podlech (1988Podlech, D. von 1988. Beiträge zur Kenntnis altweltlicher Anthemideae (Compositae) I. Was ist Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.? Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 27: 69–71. : 70) stated “Typus: Hab. in Caucaso, herb. Willd. (vidi Microfiche)”. The Willdenow’s Pyrethrum tenuifolium is characterized in having the basal and lower leaf blades 2-pinnatipartite, with segments (1st order) lanceolate (2.5–3.0 times longer than wide) and segments (2nd order) linear [Willdenow (1809Willdenow, K. L. 1809. Enumeratio plantarum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis. Taberna Libraria Scholae Realis, Berolini.: 906) also highlighted in the protologue “…foliis radicalibus bipinnatis, pinnis linearibus pinnatifidis, caulinis bipinnatifidis, laciniis linearibus subintegerrimis”]. The Willdenow’s P. tenuifolium makes the homonym Tenore’s name as illegitimate (Art. 53.1 of the ICN).

As a whole, and on the basis of the personal examination of specimens collected in Europe and Middle Asia, I highlighted two main morphological groups in Tanacetum corymbosum, i.e. corymbosum/subcorymbosum/cinereum (group I) and achilleae/daucifolium (group II). The group I is characterized in having the leaf blades 1-pinnatipartite with the segments toothed or incised, while the group II shows blades 2-pinnatipartite with segments (2nd order) toothed to incised or linear. Differential characters among the taxa included in each group refer to bracts of capitula and hairness of leaves (group I), and shape of leaf segments of 2nd order (group II) as reported in the following diagnostic key:

1. Leaves (the basal and lower ones) 1-pinnatipartite
........................................................................................................ 2

-. Leaves (the basal and lower ones) 2-pinnatipartite
........................................................................................................ 4

2. Involucral bracts of capitula with a broad blackish-brown margin (each margin up to 1/3 wider of the total size of the bract)
........................................................................................................T. corymbosum subsp. subcorymbosum

-. Involucral bracts of capitula without a broad blackish-brown margin
........................................................................................................ 3

3. Leaf blades glabrous to slightly pubescent
........................................................................................................ T. corymbosum subsp. corymbosum

-. Leaf blades densely pubescent
........................................................................................................T. corymbosum subsp. cinereum

4. Leaf segments (2nd order) ovate to lanceolate
........................................................................................................T. corymbosum subsp. achilleae

-. Leaf segments (2nd order) linear
........................................................................................................T. corymbosum subsp. daucifolium

From the corological point of view Tanacetum corymbosum s. l. is a Paleotemperate element, occuring in Europe, Northern Africa and Asia (Heywood, 1976aHeywood, V. H. 1976a. Tanacetum L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (Eds.), Flora Europea 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne: 169–171.; Tela Botanica 2000–Tela Botanica 2000–. Tela Botanica. Flore électronique. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from, http://www.tela-botanica.org/bdtfx-nn-75404-synthese.; Bartolucci et al., 2018Bartolucci, F., Peruzzi, L., Galasso, G. et al. 2018 – An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy. Pl. Biosystems 152: 179–303. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2017.1419996; Greuter, 2006–2009Greuter, W. 2006–2009. Compositae (pro parte majore). In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (Eds.), Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=7001927&PTRefFk=7000000; SANBI, 2012SANBI [South African National Biodiversity Institute] 2012. Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. In: National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/details.php?langue=an&id=139523). General distribution areas for each taxa considered in the present paper follow:

(1) subsp. achilleae has a focal point in SW Europe and N Africa occurring in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, CS Italy (Liguria region, and from Emilia-Romagna to Calabria regions), SE France (departments of Var and Alpes Maritimes), and Spain.

(2) subsp. cinereum occurs in E Europe (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria), and Turkey.

(3) subsp. daucifolium occurs in Caucasus, and Russia.

(4) subsp. subcorymbosum occurs in CE Europe from Switzerland, Poland, Austria, N Italy (regions Lombardy, Trentino Alto-Adige, and Fruili-Venezia Giulia) to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Romania, and Ukraine (this subspecies is doubtfully native in SE France, in the department of Var).

TAXONOMIC TREATMENT AND TYPIFICATION OF THE NAMES.Top

Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip., Tanaceteen: 57 (1844) subsp. corymbosumChrysanthemum corymbosum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 890 (1753) [basionym] ≡ C. corymbiferum L., Amoen. Acad. 4: 491 (1759), orth. var.[5]Pyrethrum corymbosum (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol (ed. 2) 2: 148 (1772) ≡ P. corymbiferum (L.) S. G. Gmel., Reise Russland 1: 115 (1770–1774) ≡ Leucanthemum corymbosum (L.) Godr. and Gren. in Gren. and Godron, Fl. France 2: 145 (1850).

Lectotype (designated by Humphries in Jarvis & Turland, 1998Jarvis, C. E. & Turland, N. (Eds.) 1998. Typification of Linnaean specific and varietal names in the Compositae (Asteraceae). Taxon 47: 347–370. https://doi.org/10.2307/1223764: 358): Herb. Linn., No. 1012.13, LINN photo!, image available at: http://linnean-online.org/10439/.

= Pyrethrum clusii Tausch, Ind. Pl. Prague: 8, 12 (1821Tausch, I. F. 1821. Index plantarum, quae in horto excellentissimi Comitis Josephi Malabaila de Canal coluntur. Prague.).

Lectotype (designated here): [Icon] “Tanacetum inodorum II” from Clusius (1601Clusius, C. A. 1601. Rariorum Plantarum Historia 3. Ex officina Plantiniana, Aenturpiae.: 338) (image available at: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14549#page/350/mode/1up).

Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. achilleae (L.) Greuter in Greuter et al., Willdenowia 33: 43 (2003) ≡ Chrysanthemum achilleae L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 562 (1767b) [basionym] ≡ Pyrethrum achilleae (L.) DC., Prodr. 6: 57 (1838) ≡ P. corymbosum subsp. achilleae (L.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 372 (1879Nyman, C. F. 1879. Conspectus florae europaeae. Typis Officinae Bohlinianae, Örebro Sueciae.) ≡ C. corymbosum var. achilleae (L.) Fiori and Paol., Fl. Anal. Ital. [Fiori in Fiori & Béguinot] 3: 244 (1903Fiori, A. & Béguinot, A. 1903. Flora Analitica d’Italia 3. Tipografia del Seminario, Padova.).

Lectotype (designated here): [Icon] Tab. 29 “Parthenium” from Micheli (1729Micheli, P. A. 1729. Nova plantarum genera. Typis Bernardi Paperini, Florentiae.), image available at: http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/ing/Libro.php?Libro=2801&Pagina=287.

= Chrysanthemum italicum L., Mant. Pl.: 116 (1767a).

Lectotype (designated here): “Nº 69 / Parthenium foliis tenuissimis, achill [sic] / caesaris Mich. nov. gen. pag. 34 / t. 29 / Matricaria / s. Chrysant [sic] / P. Arduino”, Herb. Linn., No. 1012.21 (LINN photo!, image available at: http://linnean-online.org/10447/)

= Chrysanthemum tanacetifolium Pourr., Hist. Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Toulouse 3: 311 (1788) ≡ Pyrethrum corymbosum subsp. pourretii (Pourr.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 372 (1879Nyman, C. F. 1879. Conspectus florae europaeae. Typis Officinae Bohlinianae, Örebro Sueciae.).

Neotype (designated here): [France, Occitania] “Chrysanthemum / corymbosum / N. de Montpellier / La Valette / 27.VI.41” (m. unknown) “HERBARIUM MUSEI PARISIENSIS / Herbier E. LICENT (1876-1952) / Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. / Montpellier. La Valette / 27.6.1941” (m. unknown) (P 00731963 photo!, image available at : http://mediaphoto.mnhn.fr/media/1441452107028DinFVwf5jJWUufsx.

= Pyrethrum tenuifolium Ten., Fl. Napol. Prodr.: L (1815), nom. illeg. non P. tenuifolium Willd. (1809Willdenow, K. L. 1809. Enumeratio plantarum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis. Taberna Libraria Scholae Realis, Berolini.), Art. 53.1 of the ICN (see McNeill et al., 2012).

Lectotype (designated here): “Pyrethrum tenuifolium Nob. / Me Tenore 1814” (m. unknown) (G 00450834 photo!, specimen on the left, image available at: http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/chg/adetail.php?id=317570&base=img&lang=en).

Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. cinereum (Griseb.) Grierson in Davis, Fl. Turkey 5: 262 (1975) ≡ Pyrethrum cinereum Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 202 (1844) [basionym].

Lectotype (designated here): [Macedonia] “Pyrethrum cinereum m. [mihi] 454/ Pyrethrum niveum Lag. / Diff. foliis bipinna / tipartitis lobis obl. [oblongi] / in pascuis lapidosis / pr. Palanka” (m. unknown) “HERBARIUM GOTTINGEN / Comp. / Pyrethrum cinereum Griseb. / Spicil. Fl. Rumel. Bithyn. 2: 202.1846 / Syntypus / leg. FRIEDRICHSTHAL 454” “Tanacetum corymbosum / subsp. cinereum (Gris.) Grierson / LECTOTYPUS / 1986 / rev. B. Voith-Drescher” (GOET 002103 photo!, image available at: http://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.goet002103?searchUri=filter%3Dname%26so%3Dps_group_by_genus_species%2Basc%26Query%3DPyrethrum%2Bcinereum);

Syntypes: Turkey, pr. Bolu, F. Pestalozza s.n. (GOET 002109 photo!); [Macedonia, Palanka] “Nº HRB MUSEI PALAT. VINDOB / Vid Boissier / Friedrichsthal / Palanka / Hb. Maced. 454” (m. unknown) (W 0051161!, image available at: http://jacq.nhm-wien.ac.at/djatoka/jacq-viewer/viewer.html? rft_id=w_0051161& identifiers=w_0051161).

Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. daucifolium (Pers.) Iamonico, comb. et stat. nov. ≡ Pyrethrum daucifolium Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 462 (1805) [basionym] Chrysanthemum daucifolium (Pers.) Ledeb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1: 549 (1845).

Lectotype (designated by Podlech, 1988Podlech, D. von 1988. Beiträge zur Kenntnis altweltlicher Anthemideae (Compositae) I. Was ist Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.? Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 27: 69–71. : 70): in Caucaso, M. Bieberstein s.n. (L 900.227-31 photo!).

= Pyrethrum tenuifolium Willd., Enum. Pl.: 906 (1809Willdenow, K. L. 1809. Enumeratio plantarum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis. Taberna Libraria Scholae Realis, Berolini.) ≡ P. corymbosum var. tenuifolium (Willd.) Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 2: 552 (1844) ≡ Tanacetum corymbosum var. tenuifolium (Willd.) Briq. and Cavill in Burnat, Fl. Alpes Marit. 6: 125 (1916).

Lectotype (designated by Podlech, 1988Podlech, D. von 1988. Beiträge zur Kenntnis altweltlicher Anthemideae (Compositae) I. Was ist Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.? Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 27: 69–71. : 70): Habitat in Caucaso, C. L. Willdenow (B-Willd. 16219 photo!, image available at: http://ww2.bgbm.org/herbarium/specimen.cfm?SpecimenPK=131011&idThumb=393487&SpecimenSequenz=1&loan=0

− “Tanacetum corymbosum var. tenuifolium” in Podlech, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 27: 70 (1988Podlech, D. von 1988. Beiträge zur Kenntnis altweltlicher Anthemideae (Compositae) I. Was ist Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.? Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 27: 69–71. ), isonym (Art. 6.3 Note 2 of the ICN).

Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. subcorymbosum (Schur) Szafer & Pawłowski, Pl. Polon. Exic., ser. 2, 3: 21 (1936) ≡ Chrysanthemum subcorymbosum Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 146 (1859) [basionym]

Type: not designated[6].

?= Pyrethrum clusii Fisch. ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 231–232 (1831), nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1) ≡ Chrysanthemum corymbosum subsp. clusii Dostál, Květena ČSR: 1603 (1950Dostál, J. 1950. Květena ČSR a ilustrovaný klíč k určení všech cevnatých rostlin, na území Československa planě rostoucích nebo běžně pěstovaných. Přírodověd nakl, Praha.), nom. nov. pro Pyrethrum clusii Rchb. non Tausch (Art. 58.1) ≡ Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. clusii Heywood, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71(4): 272 (1976bHeywood, V. H. 1976b. Notulae Systematicae ad Floram Europaeam spectantes 19. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 71: 235–274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1975.tb01204.x), nom. nov. pro Pyrethrum clusii Rchb. non Tausch (Art. 58.1).

Lectotype (designated here): [Icon] “Tanacetum inodorum I” from Clusius (1601Clusius, C. A. 1601. Rariorum Plantarum Historia 3. Ex officina Plantiniana, Aenturpiae.: 338) (image available at: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14549#page/350/mode/1up).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTop

Thanks are due to the Director and Curators of all the herbaria cited.

NOTESTop

[1] Linnaeus also published the name Chrysanthemum italicum in Systema naturae (Linnaeus, 1767bLinnaeus, C. 1767b. Systema naturae 2 (12th ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 563), where he quoted the reference to his Mantissa (“Mant. 116”).
[2] The Micheli’s reference was also cited in the synonymy of Chrysanthemum achilleae (see discussion under this name).
[3] Linnaeus (1767bLinnaeus, C. 1767b. Systema naturae 2 (12th ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 563) published the name Chrysanthemum millefoliatum citing as synonym Anthemis millefolia L. (from Linnaeus, 1753Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum 12. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 896). Since A. millefolia [now Tanacetum millefolium (L.) Tzvelev, lectotype at LINN (No. 1012.22) designated by Humphries in Jarvis & Turland (1998Jarvis, C. E. & Turland, N. (Eds.) 1998. Typification of Linnaean specific and varietal names in the Compositae (Asteraceae). Taxon 47: 347–370. https://doi.org/10.2307/1223764: 352), image of the lectotype available at: http://linnean-online.org/10448/] was validly published, C. millefoliatum is a superfluous and illegitimate name according to the Arts. 52.1 and 52.2 of the ICN.
[4] The Podlech’s name is an isonym of the previous proposed combination Tanacetum corymbosum var. tenuifolium (Willd.) Briq. & Cavill. (see the paragraph “Taxonomic Treatment and typification of the names”).
[5] The name Chrysanthemum corymbiferum is clearly an orthographic variant of C. corymbosum L. (1753: 890), as noted by Stearn (1974Stearn, W. T. 1974. Magnol’s Botanicum Monspeliense and Linnaeus’s. Flora Monspeliensis. In: Geck, E. & Pressler, G. (Eds.), Festschrift für Claus Nissen. Pressler, Wiesbaden: 612–650.: 632). Linnaeus (1763: 1251) in the 2nd Edition of Species Plantarum again used the epithet “corymbiferum”, but in conjunction with the same diagnosis and synonyms associated with C. corymbosum in the 1st Edition of Species Plantarum (Linnaeus, 1753Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum 12. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 890). In the 12th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus, 1767bLinnaeus, C. 1767b. Systema naturae 2 (12th ed.). Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.: 562), Linnaeus again used the same diagnosis, but reverted to the use of “corymbosum”.
[6] As original material was not found, a neotypification would be required (Art. 9.7). However, despite repeated requestes, I have not received replies from Curators of some Herbaria in which the Schur’s collection is preserved. So, I cannot be sure that a lectotype is not in extant and, in the case that original material will be found, any neotypification will be superseded. As a consequence I prefer to avoid the proposal for a neotype for the time being. For this reason Pyrethrum clusii was reported a doubtful synonym of Chrysanthemum subcorymbosum..

REFERENCESTop

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