Ethnobotanical information of some villages of Isfahan province

ARTÍCULO

An ethnobotanical survey on some areas of northwest of Isfahan province, Iran

M. KESHAVARZI & S. MOSAFERI

Plant Science Department, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

 

ORCID iD. M. KESHAVARZI: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3032-9408, S. MOSAFERI: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0501-6637

Author for correspondence: M. Keshavarzi (m.keshavarzi@alzahra.ac.ir)

 

Editor: T. Garnatje

 

An ethnobotanical survey on some areas of northwest of Isfahan province, Iran

ABSTRACT
An ethnobotanical survey on some areas of northwest of Isfahan province, Iran.— Iran is one of the countries which enormously used medicinal plants from the ancient times. In this study, we documented the ethnobotanical data of Golpayegan, and Shahin Shahr and Meymeh counties (Isfahan province) for the first time in Iran. Field study and plant collecting were done in different seasons in 2016–2017. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using information of questionnaires gained from 27 inhabitants. Totally, 48 plants of 24 families were recorded from studied areas. Asteraceae (36%) and Lamiaceae (23%) are those containing the biggest numbers of cited plants. Moreover, leaves (45.83%) and seeds (18.75%) were the most used parts. This study indicated the importance of useful plants of studied areas and the necessity of doing this kind of research on other parts of country in order to preserve this valuable information of local inhabitants.
KEY WORDS: ethnobotany; Iran; Isfahan province.

Estudio etnobotánico de áreas del noroeste de la provincia de Isfahan, Iran

RESUMEN
Estudio etnobotánico de áreas del noroeste de la provincia de Isfahan, Iran.— Irán es un país que ha utilizado de manera destacada las plantas medicinales desde la antigüedad. En este estudio, documentamos los datos etnobotánicos de los condados de Golpayegan, Shahin Shahr y Meymeh (provincia de Isfahán) por primera vez en Irán. El estudio de campo y la recolección de plantas se realizaron en diferentes temporadas en 2016 y 2017. Los datos etnobotánicos se analizaron utilizando información proveniente de cuestionarios realizados a 27 informantes. En total, se registraron 48 plantas de 24 familias de las áreas estudiadas. Las familias Asteraceae (36%) y Lamiaceae (23%) son las que contienen un mayor número de plantas citadas. Las hojas (45,83%) y las semillas (18,75%) son las partes de planta más utilizadas. Este estudio indica la importancia de las plantas útiles de las áreas estudiadas y la necesidad de realizar este tipo de investigación en otras partes del país con el fin de preservar esta valiosa información de los habitantes locales.
PALABRAS CLAVE: etnobotánica; Irán; provincia de Isfahán.

Recibido: 18/07/2018 / Aceptado: 26/03/2019 / Publicado on line: 10/10/2019

Cómo citar este artículo / Citation: Keshavarzi, M. & Mosaferi, S. 2019. An ethnobotanical survey on some areas of northwest of Isfahan province, Iran. Collectanea Botanica 38: e008. https://doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2019.v38.008

Copyright: © 2019 CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.

CONTENIDOS

ABSTRACT
RESUMEN
INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUDING REMARKS
APPENDIX. Questionnaire model.
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTIONTop

Awareness about the plants as the sources of medicine dates back to many centuries ago (Stojanoski, 1999Stojanoski, N. 1999. Development of health culture in Veles and its region from the past to the end of the 20 th century. Society of Science and Art, Veles.; Namsa et al., 2011Namsa, N. D., Mandal, M., Tangjang, S. & Mandal, S. C. 2011. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 7: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-7-31). Since the ancient time, man has used plants to cure his illnesses or the animal’s disease. Nowadays, the use of medicinal plants has been considerably increased in the world due to their low cost, availability, and effectiveness (WHO, 2007WHO [World Health Organization] 2007. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. WHO Publications, Geneva. ).

Ethnobotany is regarded as the study of relationship between plants and humans. This study involved different fields such as environmental history, cultural and political ecology, anthropology, geography and environmental ethics, which can be linked to taxonomy, ecology, nutrition, palynology, conservation biology and pharmacognosy (Nolan & Turner, 2011Nolan, J. M. & Turner, N. J. 2011. Ethnobotany: The study of people-plant relationships. In: Anderson, E. N., Pearsall, D., Hunn, E. & Turner, N. (Eds.), Ethnobiology 9. John Wiley & Sons Press, Hoboken: 135–141. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118015872.ch9). In addition, ethnobotanical studies are not restricted to distant places or diverse cultures when people have some information about the plants. This information contains the use of plants as food, medicine, shade, fiber, dye, detergent material, fuel and ornaments. Most of the studies related to ethnobotany require fieldwork and collaborating with local inhabitants (Nolan & Turner, 2011Nolan, J. M. & Turner, N. J. 2011. Ethnobotany: The study of people-plant relationships. In: Anderson, E. N., Pearsall, D., Hunn, E. & Turner, N. (Eds.), Ethnobiology 9. John Wiley & Sons Press, Hoboken: 135–141. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118015872.ch9).

Further, the documentation of ethnobotanical information related to local people and folk healers can save these traditions from extinction and help protect natural habitats if the community is informed about the results of ethnobotanical studies, as well as the habitat condition (Khoshbakht & Hammer, 2006Khoshbakht, K. & Hammer, K. 2006. Savadkouh (Iran) – an evolutionary center for fruit trees and shrubs. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-005-7467-8).

Iran includes a rich plant resource with approximately 8000 species, among which about 875 species are known as medicinal herbs (Eftekhari & Ramezani, 2004Eftekhari, T. & Ramezani, M. 2004. Introduction to plant biodiversity in Iran. In: Pushpangadan, P., Nair, K. N. & Ahmad, M. R. (Eds.), Biodiversity and medicinal plant wealth of South Asian countries. National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.). The plants have been used in different varieties by people, among which some such as peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) are commonly used as home remedies while some are prescribed and sold by traditional healers (Mozaffarian, 2015Mozaffarian, V. 2015. Identification of medicinal and aromatic plants of Iran. Farhang Moaser Press, Tehran.).

The residents in different parts of Iran are using various plants for their treatment and pain relief. In this regard, different ethnobotanical studies were conducted in some parts of the country or on special diseases although some parts have not been studied yet due to the vast area (Zargari, 1989–1992Zargari, A. 1989–1992. Medicinal Plants. University Publication, Tehran.; Ghorbani, 2005Ghorbani, A. 2005. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran (Part 1): general results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102: 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.035; Mirdeilami et al., 2011Mirdeilami, S. Z., Barani, H., Mazandarani, M. & Heshmati, Gh. A. 2011. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maraveh Tappeh region, north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 2: 327–338.; Mosaddegh et al., 2012Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A. & Esmaeili, S. 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141: 80–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.004; Amiri & Joharchi, 2013Amiri, M. S. & Joharchi, M. R. 2013. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 3: 254–271.; Safa et al., 2013Safa, O., Soltanipoor, M. A., Rastegar, S., Kazemi, M., Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, K. & Ghannadi, A. 2013. An ethnobotanical survey on Hormozgan province, Iran. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 3: 64–81.; Azizi & Keshavarzi, 2015Azizi, H. & Keshavarzi, M. 2015. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Sardasht, Western Azerbaijan, Northwestern Iran. Journal of Herbal Drugs 6: 113–119.).

In addition, few ethnobotanical studies have been done in spite of the diversity of medicinal herbs and the extent of Isfahan province (Sajadi & Ghanbari, 2011Sajadi, E. & Ghanbari, A. 2011. Collection and study of traditional uses of a selection of medicinal plants of Kashan. Journal of Islamic and Iranian Traditional Medicine 1: 30–60.; Abbasi et al., 2012Abbasi, Sh., Afsharzadeh, S. & Mohajeri, A. 2012. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Natanz region (Kashan), Iran. Journal of Herbal Drugs 3: 147–156.; Mardani-nejad & Vazirpour, 2012Mardani-nejad, S. & Vazirpour, M. 2012. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants by Mobarakeh people. Journal of Herbal Drugs 3: 111–129.). Thus, the present study aimed to collect ethnobotanical information in Golpayegan county and Shahin Shahr and Meymeh county to enhance the related information about the useful plants of those areas.

MATERIALS AND METHODSTop

An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Isfahan province with the elevation range between 1700 to 2300 m, 28 °C mean annual temperature, and 300 mm annual rainfall. Isfahan province is situated in the central part of Iran with a population of 5.121 million, based on the 2016 census. This province is a part of Irano-Turanian phytogeographic region, which is located between the Zagros mountain range and the Kavir desert, which involves 107,029 km2 areas with an average elevation of 1600 m. The Zagros mountain chain resides in the western borders of the province. Dalankuh, Darrabid, and Karkas are considered as the major mountains of Isfahan province with the highest peak of 3915 m above the sea level. The Karkas range divides the province into two distinct topographic and climatic areas including the more temperate western and the arid eastern regions. The ethnobotanical information was collected from five villages selected randomly. The villages were located in the north of Golpayegan county and west of Shahin Shahr and Meymeh county (Fig. 1 and Table 1).

Figure 1. Map of the studied areas in Isfahan province (Image adapted from Google Earth).

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Table 1. Locations detail of present study.
Village Altitude (m) Coordinates County Inhabitants Number of
interviewees
Muteh 1915 33° 37′ 33′′ N, 50° 47′ 13′′ E Shahin Shahr & Meymeh 898 5
Looshab 1780 33° 26′ 08′′ N, 50° 46′ 05′′ E Shahin Shahr & Meymeh 305 9
Hasanrobat 2285 33° 24′ 25′′ N, 50° 48′ 37′′ E Shahin Shahr & Meymeh 1700 7
Tikan 2018 33° 20′ 20′′ N, 50° 33′ 20′′ E Golpayegan 230 3
Saidabad 1777 32° 23′ 48′′ N, 51° 08′ 37′′ E Golpayegan 1629 3

Shahin Shahr and Meymeh county have an arid-cold climate with the annual rainfall of 160.5 mm. The typical vegetation of this area includes Artemisia sieberi Besser, Acantholimon scorpius (Jaub. & Spach) Boiss., Astragalus verus Olivier, Stipa hohenackeriana Trin. & Rupr., Zygophyllum atriplicoides Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Atriplex verrucifera M. Bieb., Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) M. Bieb., Stachys inflata Benth., Peganum harmala L., Hertia angustifolia (DC.) Kuntze and Scariola orientalis (Boiss.) Soják. Furthermore, Amygdalus scoparia Spach is found in some high altitudes (Feizi et al., 2017Feizi, M. T., Alijani, V., Jaberalansar, Z., Khodagholi, M. & Shirani, K. 2017. Vegetation types of Esfahan province. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran.).

Golpayegan has a moderate semi-arid climate and 263.2 mm annual rainfall with the typical vegetation of Artemisia aucheri Boiss., Artemisia sieberi Besser, Astragalus verus Olivier, Astragalus gossypinus Fisch., Stipa hohenackeriana Trin. & Rupr. and Cousinia cylindracea Boiss. (Feizi et al., 2017Feizi, M. T., Alijani, V., Jaberalansar, Z., Khodagholi, M. & Shirani, K. 2017. Vegetation types of Esfahan province. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran.).

Different ethnic groups are living in different parts of Iran like Kurds, Turkmens, Lurs, etc. although the inhabitants in these villages are not related to any definite ethnic group. Some immigrated from Khorasan province during 18th century and they are residing in those villages now (Savina, 1980Savina, V. I. 1980. Etnonimy v Toponimii Irana. In: Murzeav, E. M. (Ed.), Onomastika Vostoka. Moskva, Moscow [in Russian].). They speak Persian language although there are some local accents. Further, most of the inhabitants are farmers and stockholders.

In order to collect the related information, traditional healers and knowledgeable people known by local communities were interviewed. Snowball sampling technique was used for selecting the participants (Albuquerque et al., 2014Albuquerque, U. P., Cruz da Cunha, L. V. F., Paiva de Lucena, R. F. & Nóbrega Alves, R. R. 2014. Methods and techniques in ethnobiology and ethnoecology. Humana Press, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8636-7). Totally, 27 inhabitants (female = 17; male = 10), aged 33–95 years, were selected. As the people in Tikan and Saidabad villages spoke Persian with Golpayegani accent, two local people accompanied us as native translators during the interviews. Prior to the interview, all of the participants were invited to take part in the project and were informed about the objective so they took part in the interview with satisfaction.

As some were uneducated, the questionnaires were filled by the researchers. The questionnaire included some information related to age, gender, degree of education, local plant names, the plant parts used, uses/ailments treated (Appendix). Each participant was interviewed only once.

In order to identify the plants referred by the participants, they were asked to accompany the researchers to show the plants. However, they were asked to give the address of the mentioned plants when it was impossible due to the distance or old age. Field study and plant collection were done in the spring, summer and autumn in order to assign the exact scientific name of plants during 2016–2017. Further, the plant specimens were determined by using Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 1965–2008Rechinger, K. H. (Ed.) 1965–2008. Flora Iranica. Akademische Druck-u Verlagsanstalt, Graz.) and Flora of Iran (Assadi, 1988–2010Assadi, M. (Ed.) 1988–2010. Flora of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran.). Voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of Alzahra University (ALUH).

The ethnobotanical data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013 software. Table 2 indicates the complete information on the useful plants in the studied areas. Family, scientific name, vernacular name (in Persian language with Golpayegani accent), parts of the plants used, preparation and medicinal effects or edible use were explained.

The number of the uses reported for each plant (NU) were calculated and the frequency of citation (FC) was divided by the total number of informants (N) to provide the relative frequency consensus (RFC, Tardío & Pardo-de-Santayana, 2008Tardío, J. & Pardo de Santayana, M. 2008. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of southern Cantabria (northern Spain). Economic Botany 62: 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-007-9004-5); RFC = 1 shows that all participants mentioned the plant as useful.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONTop

General results

In the present study, 48 plants, which were traditionally used (i.e. it is used since ancient times), were recorded (Table 2). Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (36% and 23%, respectively) were considered as the most used families followed by Apiaceae and Fabaceae while other families were less used (9%) (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Percentage of families with medicinal importance in the studied area.

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The most used parts of these plants were leaf (45.83%), seed (18.75%), and aerial parts (12.50%). Further, other parts of plants were used by the locals less than 10% (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. Percentage of plant parts used in the studied area.

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All informants mentioned Tripleurospermum disciforme (C. A. Mey.) Sch. Bip., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Astragalus gossypinus, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl, Hordeum vulgare L. and Peganum harmala, which indicated the highest value of RFC while the lowest value of same index was reported for Juglans regia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Diarthron lessertii (Wikstr.) Kit Tan.

Medicinal plants

In the studied area, the plants were mostly used by the locals for digestive system problems (25%, 12 plants), sore throat (12.5%, 6 plants), and temperature regulator (10.41%, 5 plants).

Tripleurospermum disciforme, Descurainia sophia, Astragalus gossypinus, Stachys lavandulifolia, and Peganum harmala were considered as the most popular medicinal plants known by the locals.

Tripleurospermum disciforme has flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins, which claimed to have antibacterial activities and are effective on gastric ulcer (Minaiyan et al., 2006Minaiyan, M., Ghassemi-Dehkordi, N. & Mohammadzadeh, B. 2006. Anti-ulcer effect of Tripleurospermum disciforme (C. A. Mey) Schultz Bip. on pylorus ligated (Shay) rats. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 1: 15–21.; Chehregani et al., 2010Chehregani, A., Mohsenzadeh, F., Mirazi, N., Hajisadeghian, S. & Baghali, Z. 2010. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of Tripleurospermum disciforme in three developmental stages. Pharmaceutical Biology 48: 1280–1284. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880201003770143; Mandegary et al., 2014Mandegary, A., Soodi, M., Sharififar, F. & Ahmadi, S. 2014. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects of Tripleurospermum disciforme and Dracocephalum multicaule. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 5: 162–166.).

Aerial parts of Descurainia sophia have different kinds of amino acids, fatty acids and hydrocarbons (Khan & Wang, 2012Khan, M. & Wang, N. 2012. Descurainia sophia L.: a weed with multiple medicinal uses. Punjab University Journal of Zoology 27: 45–51.). Further, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities were recorded for this plant (Nimrouzi & Zarshenas, 2016Nimrouzi, M. & Zarshenas, M. M. 2016. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl: modern and traditional applications. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 6: 266–272.).

Astragalus gossypinus has flavonoids and polysaccharides (Asgari Nematian et al., 2008Asgari Nematian, M., Atri, M. & Nazem, H. 2008. Flavonoid components variability of Astragalus gossypinus as a medicinal species in the west of Iran. Peyke Noor Journal Science 1: 50–61.; Alijani et al., 2011Alijani, S., Balaghi, S. & Mohammadifar, M. A. 2011. Effect of gamma irradiation on rheological properties of polysaccharides exuded by A. floccosus and A. gossypinus. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 49: 471–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.05.030). The roots of different species in Astragalus were used to treat nephritis, diabetes, and some kinds of cancers (Asgari Nematian et al., 2008Asgari Nematian, M., Atri, M. & Nazem, H. 2008. Flavonoid components variability of Astragalus gossypinus as a medicinal species in the west of Iran. Peyke Noor Journal Science 1: 50–61.).

Stachys lavandulifolia consist of various phenolic compounds and essential oils (Ghasemi Pirbalouti & Mohammadi, 2013Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A. & Mohammadi, M. 2013. Phytochemical composition of the essential oil of different populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 3: 123–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60036-2; Rahimi Khoigani et al., 2017Rahimi Khoigani, S., Rajaei, A. & Goli, S. A. 2017. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total flavonoids and LC-MS/MS characterization of phenolic constituents in Stachys lavandulifolia. Natural Products Research 31: 355–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1233410), which claimed to have antibacterial activities and can be effective in primary dysmenorrheal and gastric disorders (Nabavizadeh et al., 2011Nabavizadeh, F., Alizadeh, A. M., Adeli, S., Golestan, M., Moloudian, H. & Kamalinejad, M. 2011. Gastroprotective effects of Stachys lavandulifolia extract on experimental gastric ulcer. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5: 155–159. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.296; Fooladvand & Fazeli-nasab, 2014Fooladvand, Z. & Fazeli-nasab, B. 2014. Antibacterial activities of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. extract against eight bacteria. Journal of Herbal Drugs 5: 13–18.).

The seeds in Peganum harmala are rich in alkaloids such as harmine, harmaline and harmalol both quantitatively and qualitatively so that they can have remarkably antifungal and antibacterial activities (Zargari, 1989–1992Zargari, A. 1989–1992. Medicinal Plants. University Publication, Tehran.; Benbott et al., 2013Benbott, A., Bahri, L., Boubendir, A. & Yahia, A. 2013. Study of the chemical components of Peganum harmala and evaluation of acute toxicity of alkaloids extracted in the Wistar albino mice. Journal of Material and Environmental Science 4: 558–565.; Behidj-Benyounes et al., 2014Behidj-Benyounes, N., Dahmene, T., Allouche, N. & Laddad, A. 2014. Phytochemical, antibacterial and antifungal activities of alkaloids extracted from Peganum harmala L. seeds of South of Algeria. Asian Journal of Chemistry 26: 2960–2964. https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2014.16138).

Edible plants

Some plants were used in local cuisines although most of the cited plants were used medicinally. Further, leaves of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh., Lepidium draba L. and Silene conoidea L. and young bark of Eryngium bungei Boiss. were used in local foods.

Locals consume some plants like Crepis sancta (L.) Bornm., Lactuca undulata Ledeb., Tragopogon graminifolius DC., Alhagi persarum Boiss & Buhse and Papaver bornmuelleri Fedde as temperature regulators, since the areas under study have hot summer.

Other uses

As for non-medicinal and non-food uses, the seeds of Rubia tinctorum L. have been used in painting carpet yams and textures from ancient times in the studied areas. After decocting the seeds, the solution was liquidized and the yams or textures were boiled within solution until they colored red. Eremurus persicus (Jaub. & Spach) Boiss. has been extensively used for non-medicinal purpose. The juice of fresh root was extracted and used as glue. Leaf of Juglans regia is used as cockroach killer liquid in toilet. Then, the solution was liquidized and poured on toilet well after decocting the leaves and making a thick liquid. Stems of Zygophyllum atriplicoides were burnt as fuel in an outdoor fireplace and its smoke was gathered, dried and used as kohl.

Plants with side effects

Long time application of Tripleurospermum disciforme may cause constipation. High consumption of Gundelia tournefortii can lead to diarrhea. Women do not use Cichorium intybus L., Tripleurospermum disciforme and Pimpinella anisum L. during pregnancy because of possible danger of these plants for their fetuses.

Limitation of the study

In the present study, only 48 plants were reported as most of interviewees were too old and they could not remember all the useful plants used with details; although there were some other plants, the names of which were disregarded. In addition, some old inhabitants who were well-informed, refused to participate the survey, which is regarded as a serious problem leading to the disappearance of valuable information as it was explained by some authors in other parts of Iran (Ghorbani, 2005Ghorbani, A. 2005. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran (Part 1): general results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102: 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.035; Mosaddegh et al., 2012Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A. & Esmaeili, S. 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141: 80–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.004). Finally, some traditional medicines made by traditional healers from local plants were considered as a source of income. Therefore, they failed to provide accessibility to the secret formulas of these kinds of mixture.

CONCLUDING REMARKSTop

In the present paper, the first ethnobotanical survey of Golpayegan, and Shahin Shahr and Meymeh counties was reported. Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are regarded as the families mostly used by locals. The results were in consistent with those in the previous studies from Isfahan province and other parts of the country (Ghorbani, 2005Ghorbani, A. 2005. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran (Part 1): general results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102: 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.035; Abbasi et al., 2012Abbasi, Sh., Afsharzadeh, S. & Mohajeri, A. 2012. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Natanz region (Kashan), Iran. Journal of Herbal Drugs 3: 147–156.; Mosaddegh et al., 2012Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A. & Esmaeili, S. 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141: 80–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.004). Further, leaf, seed, and aerial parts are the most commonly used parts in studied areas, which were in line with the studies on west and north-western Iran (Miraldi et al., 2001Miraldi, E., Ferri, S. & Mostaghimi, V. 2001. Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditional medicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75: 77–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00381-0; Mosaddegh et al., 2012Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A. & Esmaeili, S. 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141: 80–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.004). Based on the results, medicinal plants were the category with the greatest number of uses and plants for digestive disorders were the most reported in this category. Similar results were obtained in other parts of Iran (Miraldi et al., 2001Miraldi, E., Ferri, S. & Mostaghimi, V. 2001. Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditional medicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75: 77–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00381-0; Ghorbani, 2005Ghorbani, A. 2005. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran (Part 1): general results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102: 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.035; Mosaddegh et al., 2012Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A. & Esmaeili, S. 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141: 80–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.004).

Nowadays, the migration of locals to nearby cities has increased due to the climate change in recent decades and more droughts. Most of the young locals are living in urban areas, which results in destroying the chain of ethnobotanical data transition from traditional healers to youngers. It seems that some of the valuable information is being disappeared as it is the case in the area under study (Mirdeilami et al., 2011Mirdeilami, S. Z., Barani, H., Mazandarani, M. & Heshmati, Gh. A. 2011. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Maraveh Tappeh region, north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 2: 327–338.; Moein et al., 2015Moein, M., Zarshenas, M. M., Khademian, S. & Razavi, A. D. 2015. Ethnopharmacological review of plants traditionally used in Darab (south of Iran). Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences 1: 39–43.).

Table 2. List of plant studied and their uses (* shows the medicinal use of plants for animals). Vernacular names are in Persian language, with Golpayegani accent. FC: frequency of citation; RFC: relative frequency consensus; NU: number of uses reported.
Voucher no. Family Scientific name Vernacular name Part used Preparation Medicinal use Edible / non-medicinal use FC RFC NU
et 18 Amaranthaceae Anabasis haussknechtii Bunge ex Boiss. Ordolok Aerial parts Decoction For sheep tinea* 17 0.630 1
et 1 Amaranthaceae Chenopodium album L. Salmakeh Leaf Decoction Sore throat As an ingredient in local foods 22 0.814 2
et 19 Amaranthaceae Salsola kali L. Alaf shoor Young aerial parts Cooked Used with yogurt for heat exhaustion 17 0.630 1
et 2 Apiaceae Anethum graveolens L. Shevid Seed Powdered Cramps As an ingredient in local foods 18 0.667 1
et 3 Apiaceae Eryngium bungei Boiss. Zool Young bark As an ingredient in local foods 13 0.481 1
et 4 Apiaceae Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. Panje kalagh Young leaf As an ingredient in local potage/eaten with omelet 25 0.926 1
et 5 Apiaceae Pimpinella anisum L. Badian Seed/leaf Powdered Flatus 16 0.592 1
et 6 Asphodelaceae Eremurus persicus (Jaub. & Spach) Boiss. Sirish Root Raw Root juice is used as glue 20 0.741 1
et 7 Asteraceae Cichorium intybus L. Kasni Whole plant Decoction Diuretic/Detoxifies of body/ relieves itching 23 0.851 3
et 8 Asteraceae Crepis sancta (L.) Bornm. Alaf shirinak Young leaf Temperature regulator Eaten with vinegar as temperature regulator 19 0.704 1
et 9 Asteraceae Gundelia tournefortii L. Kangar Petiole Cooked Antiseptic/treatment of intestinal worm As an ingredient in local foods 25 0.926 2
et 10 Asteraceae Lactuca undulata Ledeb. Hovveh Young leaf Raw Temperature regulator/ fungicide agent in yogurt water skin Eaten as temperature regulator 21 0.778 2
et 11 Asteraceae Launaea acanthodes (Boiss.) Kuntze Alk Young bark Chewing as gum 18 0.667 1
et 12 Asteraceae Artemisia herba-alba Asso Terkh Leaf Herbal tea Flatus 20 0.741 1
et 13 Asteraceae Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Shengeh Aerial parts Raw eaten Kidney stone Eaten with vinegar as temperature regulator 21 0.778 2
et 14 Asteraceae Tripleurospermum disciforme (C. A. Mey.) Sch. Bip. Boomadaran Leaf and flower Herbal tea Stomach ache/ cramps 27 1 2
et 15 Brassicaceae Lepidium draba L. Moocheh Young leaf As an ingredient in local potage 18 0.667 1
et 16 Brassicaceae Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Khake-shir Seed Seed, cold water and sugar for heat exhaustion/ Threshed seed in black tea for diarrhea and food poisoning 27 1 2
et 17 Caryophyllaceae Silene conoidea L. Alaf ash Leaf As an ingredient in local potage/ Cooked and taken with yogurt 16 0.592 2
et 20 Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Senjed Fruit Raw Diarrhea 24 0.889 1
et 21 Fabaceae Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse Teranjebin Aerial parts Decoction Temperature regulator 15 0.556 1
et 22 Fabaceae Medicago sativa L. Espers Leaf Squash Blood coagulation 20 0.741 1
et 23 Fabaceae Astragalus gossypinus Fisch. Gavan Gum Soak Cough/ Trichoptilosis/ Hair tonic 27 1 3
et 25 Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Gerdoo Leaf Decoction Diabetes 3 0.111 1
et 26 Lamiaceae Lallemantia iberica (M. Bieb.) Fisch. & C. A. Mey. Balangoo Seed Decoction Cold and sore throat 25 0.926 1
et 27 Lamiaceae Salvia reuteriana Boiss. Alj-e- shahdaneh Seed Powdered with sugar Menstrual pain/ back ache 15 0.556 2
et 28 Lamiaceae Stachys inflata Benth. Gav pooneh Leaf Dried Taken with yogurt 17 0.630 1
et 29 Lamiaceae Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl Chaiee kuhei Aerial parts Herbal tea Stomach ache 27 1 1
et 30 Lamiaceae Ziziphora tenuior L. Kakuti Leaf & flower Herbal tea Stomach ache Dried/ Taken with yogurt 18 0.667 2
et 31 Malvaceae Alcea kurdica Alef. Khatmi Leaf / flower Soak Trichoptilosis 23 0.852 1
et 32 Malvaceae Malva neglecta Wallr. Nan kalaghak Fruits, flowers, leaves Raw decoction Cold and sore throat Leaves cooked with rice/ As an ingredient in local potage 25 0.926 2
et 24 Papaveraceae Fumaria asepala Boiss. Shah tareh Whole of plant Decoction Eczema and hand chap 10 0.370 1
et 33 Papaveraceae Papaver bornmuelleri Fedde Gol sorkhi Young leaf Eaten with vinegar as temperature regulator 16 0.592 1
et 34 Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. Barhang Leaf/ Seed Raw decoction Infection boil/ Septic sore throat 16 0.592 2
et 35 Phyllanthaceae Andrachne fruticulosa Boiss. Marchoobe Young leaves and shoots baked Used with yogurt to cure heat exhaustion 16 0.592 1
et 36 Poaceae Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Margh Leaf Chewing raw Headache 7 0.259 1
et 37 Poaceae Hordeum vulgare L. Jo Seed Cooked As an ingredient in local potage for sore throat 27 1 1
et 38 Polygonaceae Rheum ribes L. Rivas Petiole Raw/cooked Treatment of intestinal worm/ Diarrhea As an ingredient in local potage/ orally eaten 20 0.741 2
et 39 Polygonaceae Rumex dentatus L. Torshak Leaf Cooked Cooked as potage for treatment of sore throat 21 0.778 1
et 40 Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea L. Khorfeh Aerial parts Raw Antiseptic/treatment of intestinal worms/ Diarrhea 22 0.815 3
et 41 Rosaceae Cydonia oblonga Mill. Beh Leaf Herbal tea Cramp 17 0.630 1
et 42 Rubiaceae Rubia tinctorum L. Lon jas Seed Concentrated decoction Painting carpet yarn and texture 21 0.778 1
et 43 Salicaceae Salix alba L. Footeh Bark Powdered Urine burn of babies 15 0.556 1
et 44 Scrophulariaceae Verbascum songaricum Schrenk Goosh khari Leaf Smoke Disinfection of infected wounds 21 0.778 1
et 45 Tamaricaceae Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. Gaz Bark Smoke Disinfection of infected wounds 19 0.704 1
et 46 Thymelaeaceae Diarthron lessertii (Wikstr.) Kit Tan Gazzak Whole plant Dried and powdered Wounds and abscesses 8 0.296 1
et 47 Zygophyllaceae Peganum harmala L. Seband Seed Eaten with water Food poisoning 27 1 1
et 48 Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllum atriplicoides Fisch. & C. A. Mey. Ghij Stem Smoke Kohl 20 0.741 1

APPENDIX. Questionnaire model.Top

First part

First name/ Family name of interviewee:

Village name:

Age:

Sex:

Job:

Address and Telephone:

Do you use plants as medicine?

Which native plants do you use as medicine or food?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Second part

For each plant:

1) Vernacular name of plant:

2) In which category is this plant grouped? □ edible, □ medicine, □ fodder, □ other (…......………...)

3) Which part/parts of plant is used?

□ flower, □ root, □ stem, □ bark, □ leaf, □ seed, □ fruit, □ petiole, □ aerial parts, □ whole plant, □ other (……......…...)

4) How is it used? □ fresh, □ dried

5) Describe the preparation of it to use

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6) If the plant is used as medicine, please describe how to use it and for which disease it is applied

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7) If the plant is used as medicine, have you ever encountered with any harmful effect?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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