Collectanea Botanica, Vol 34 (2015)

Diversidad de orquídeas en la isla de Hainan en China: distribución y conservación


https://doi.org/10.3989/collectbot.2015.v34.007

X. Y. Hu
Key Laboratory of Protection and Developmental Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources, Ministry of Education/College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Hainan University, China

J. Zhu
Key Laboratory of Protection and Developmental Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources, Ministry of Education/College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Hainan University, China

X. Q. Song
Key Laboratory of Protection and Developmental Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources, Ministry of Education/College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Hainan University, China

R. X. He
Key Laboratory of Protection and Developmental Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources, Ministry of Education/College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Hainan University, China

Resumen


Las Orchidaceae se distribuyen ampliamente en muchos ecosistemas terrestres con excepción de las zonas polares y desérticas, y constituyen una suerte de «buque insignia» de la conservación biológica. Siendo como es la mayor isla tropical de China, Hainan tiene cinco formaciones vegetales de bosques tropicales, a saber, bosque monzónico caducifolio, selva tropical de tierras bajas, bosque pluvial montano, bosque siempreverde montano y bosque mesófilo de montaña. Hay 317 especies de orquídeas en la isla, incluyendo 33 endémicas, 158 epífitas, 148 terrestres y 11 especies saprófitas. La mayoría de las orquídeas, que se localizan principalmente en el centro y el sur de la isla, se distribuyen típicamente en condiciones húmedas de los bosques tropicales en las montañas a una altitud de 500 a 1500 m. El máximo nivel de endemismo también se centra en estas áreas. Las orquídeas están especialmente amenazadas por la fragmentación del hábitat debido a que crecen en pequeñas poblaciones, y la fragmentación puede bloquear el flujo de genes, lo que resulta en una menor diversidad genética. Además, debido a su valor ornamental y medicinal, muchas orquídeas son recolectadas de forma excesiva. Por lo tanto, la conservación de las orquídeas en la isla de Hainan es muy urgente. Nuestro objetivo en este artículo es determinar el patrón de distribución de las orquídeas y exponer el estado de investigación y conservación en la isla de Hainan y, además, proponer futuras estrategias de conservación.

Palabras clave


biodiversidad; conservación in situ y ex situ; diversidad genética; endemismos; Orchidaceae

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